Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 18, pp 17634–17644 | Cite as

Impact of antioxidant additives on the performance and emission characteristics of C.I engine fuelled with B20 blend of rice bran biodiesel

  • Karthikeyan Alagu
  • Beemkumar NagappanEmail author
  • Jayaprabakar Jayaraman
  • Anderson Arul Gnana Dhas
Research Article


This manuscript presents the impact of addition of antioxidant additives to rice bran biodiesel blend on the performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition (C.I) engine. Rice bran methyl ester (RBME) was produced from rice bran oil by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. An experimental investigation was conducted on a single-cylinder four-stroke C.I engine to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of rice bran methyl ester (RBME) blended with diesel at 20% by volume (B20) with and without addition of 1000 ppm of two monophenolic antioxidant additives, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The results showed that the BHA- and BHT-treated B20 blend decreased the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) by 2.1 and 1.2% and increased the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by 1.04 and 0.5% compared to B20. The BHA- and BHT-treated B20 blend produced mean reductions in NOx emission of 12.2 and 9.6%, respectively, compared to B20. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of BHA- and BHT-treated B20 were increased by 14.8–16.6% and 10.6–11.2%, respectively, compared to B20. However the emission levels were lower than those of diesel.


Antioxidant additives Rice bran biodiesel Emission Performance Butylated hydroxyanisole Butylated hydroxytoluene 



American society of testing and materials


Iodine value


Butylated hydroxyanisole


Nitrogen oxides


Butylated hydroxytoluene


Particulate matter


Brake power


Rice bran methyl ester


Brake specific fuel consumption


Rice bran oil


Brake thermal efficiency


Saponification number


Compression ignition


Rice bran biodiesel/RBME


Carbon monoxide




Exhaust gas temperature

B20 + BHA

20%RBME+80%Diesel+1000 ppm BHA



B20 + BHT

20%RBME+80%Diesel+1000 ppm BHT


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringSathyabama Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia

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