Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induced PPARβ-dependent disruption of glucose metabolism in HepG2 cells
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2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is one of the most widely used herbicides. Its impact on health is increasingly attracting great attentions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on glucose metabolism in HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism. After 24 h exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, glycogen was measured by PAS staining and glucose by ELISA in HepG2 cells. The expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism was measured by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. HepG2 cells presented more extracellular glucose consumption and glycogen content after exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes, FoxO1, and CREB is significantly elevated. Moreover, PPARβ was up-regulated dose-dependently. SiRNA knockdown of PPARβ completely rescued the increase of glycogen accumulation and glucose uptake, and the up-regulation of FOXO1 and CREB expression. Our findings propose novel mechanisms that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid causes glucose metabolism dysfunction through PPARβ in HepG2 cells.
Keywords2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid PPARβ Herbicides Glucose metabolism Hepatocyte
This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81570574).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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