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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 28, pp 27704–27723 | Cite as

Comparison of different advanced degradation processes for the removal of the pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and carbamazepine from liquid solutions

  • Andrea G. CapodaglioEmail author
  • Anna Bojanowska-Czajka
  • Marek Trojanowicz
New Challenges in the Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes

Abstract

Carbamazepine and diclofenac are two examples of drugs with widespread geographical and environmental media proliferation that are poorly removed by traditional wastewater treatment processes. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been proposed as alternative methods to remove these compounds in solution. AOPs are based on a wide class of powerful technologies, including UV radiation, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, Fenton process, catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalysis, electrochemical oxidation and their combinations, sonolysis, and microwaves applicable to both water and wastewater. Moreover, processes rely on the production of oxidizing radicals (•OH and others) in a solution to decompose present pollutants. Water radiolysis-based processes, which are an alternative to the former, involve the use of concentrated energy (beams of accelerated electrons or γ-rays) to split water molecules, generating strong oxidants and reductants (radicals) at the same time. In this paper, the degradation of carbamazepine and diclofenac by means of all these processes is discussed and compared. Energy and byproduct generation issues are also addressed.

Keywords

Diclofenac Carbamazepine Pharmaceutical compounds Advanced oxidation processes Radiolytic decomposition Advanced oxidation–reduction processes 

Abbreviations

AOP

advanced oxidation process

AORPs

advanced oxidation–reduction processes

BCR

biomass concentrator reactor

BDD

boron-doped diamond

CBZ

carbamazepine

CEC

contaminants of emerging concern

COD

chemical oxygen demand

DBP

disinfection byproduct

DCF

diclofenac

EB

electron beam

EEO

electrical energy per order

GAC

granular activated carbon

LC/MS

liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection

MBR

membrane biological reactor

NOM

natural organic matter

4′-OHD

4′-hydroxy diclofenac

5-OHD

5-hydroxy diclofenac

4′-OHDD

4′-hydroxy diclofenac dehydrate

PNEC

predicted non-effect concentrations

PPCPs

pharmaceuticals and personal care products

SRT

sludge retention time

TOC

total organic carbon

WWTP

wastewater treatment plant

Notes

Funding information

This work was partly supported by a grant from the Polish National Center of Science (NCN); project OPUS 8, number 2014/15/B/ST4/04601.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea G. Capodaglio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anna Bojanowska-Czajka
    • 2
  • Marek Trojanowicz
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering and ArchitecturePaviaItaly
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and TechnologyWarsawPoland

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