Study on sandstorm PM10 exposure assessment in the large-scale region: a case study in Inner Mongolia
The current exposure-effect curves describing sandstorm PM10 exposure and the health effects are drawn roughly by the outdoor concentration (OC), which ignored the exposure levels of people’s practical activity sites. The main objective of this work is to develop a novel approach to quantify human PM10 exposure by their socio-categorized micro-environment activities-time weighed (SCMEATW) in strong sandstorm period, which can be used to assess the exposure profiles in the large-scale region. Types of people’s SCMEATW were obtained by questionnaire investigation. Different types of representatives were trackly recorded during the big sandstorm. The average exposure levels were estimated by SCMEATW. Furthermore, the geographic information system (GIS) technique was taken not only to simulate the outdoor concentration spatially but also to create human exposure outlines in a visualized map simultaneously, which could help to understand the risk to different types of people. Additionally, exposure-response curves describing the acute outpatient rate odds by sandstorm were formed by SCMEATW, and the differences between SCMEATW and OC were compared. Results indicated that acute outpatient rate odds had relationships with PM10 exposure from SCMEATW, with a level less than that of OC. Some types of people, such as herdsmen and those people walking outdoors during a strong sandstorm, have more risk than office men. Our findings provide more understanding of human practical activities on their exposure levels; they especially provide a tool to understand sandstorm PM10 exposure in large scale spatially, which might help to perform the different categories population’s risk assessment regionally.
KeywordsParticle matter (PM10) Socio-categorized micro-environment activities-time weighed (SCMEATW) Large-scale spatial exposure assessment Geographic information system (GIS)
geographic information system
micro-environment and activities-time weighed
particle matter 10
socio-categorized micro-environment activities-time weighed
The authors are extremely grateful to staff at the Department of Environment and Health for their health statistics technical assistance. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors.
Hongmei Wang carried out the questionnaire studies and PM exposure assessment, and participated in the drafting of the manuscript. Shihai Lv conceived of the study and contributed ideas in geographical exposure. Zhaoyan Diao participated in the GIS analysis. Baolu Wang carried out the spatial analysis. Caihong Yu helped in the drafting of the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study has been approved by Erlianhaote CDC agency, with the number 201601. All volunteers were administered on the condition that informed consents were signed.
Availability of data and supporting materials section
All detail materials were provided in supplement materials. If there is a query, please contact the author for data requests.
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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