Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 17, pp 17144–17155 | Cite as

Study on sandstorm PM10 exposure assessment in the large-scale region: a case study in Inner Mongolia

  • Hongmei Wang
  • Shihai Lv
  • Zhaoyan Diao
  • Baolu Wang
  • Han Zhang
  • Caihong Yu
Research Article


The current exposure-effect curves describing sandstorm PM10 exposure and the health effects are drawn roughly by the outdoor concentration (OC), which ignored the exposure levels of people’s practical activity sites. The main objective of this work is to develop a novel approach to quantify human PM10 exposure by their socio-categorized micro-environment activities-time weighed (SCMEATW) in strong sandstorm period, which can be used to assess the exposure profiles in the large-scale region. Types of people’s SCMEATW were obtained by questionnaire investigation. Different types of representatives were trackly recorded during the big sandstorm. The average exposure levels were estimated by SCMEATW. Furthermore, the geographic information system (GIS) technique was taken not only to simulate the outdoor concentration spatially but also to create human exposure outlines in a visualized map simultaneously, which could help to understand the risk to different types of people. Additionally, exposure-response curves describing the acute outpatient rate odds by sandstorm were formed by SCMEATW, and the differences between SCMEATW and OC were compared. Results indicated that acute outpatient rate odds had relationships with PM10 exposure from SCMEATW, with a level less than that of OC. Some types of people, such as herdsmen and those people walking outdoors during a strong sandstorm, have more risk than office men. Our findings provide more understanding of human practical activities on their exposure levels; they especially provide a tool to understand sandstorm PM10 exposure in large scale spatially, which might help to perform the different categories population’s risk assessment regionally.


Particle matter (PM10Socio-categorized micro-environment activities-time weighed (SCMEATW) Large-scale spatial exposure assessment Geographic information system (GIS) 



geographic information system


micro-environment and activities-time weighed


outdoor concentration


particle matter 10


socio-categorized micro-environment activities-time weighed



The authors are extremely grateful to staff at the Department of Environment and Health for their health statistics technical assistance. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors.

Authors’ contributions

Hongmei Wang carried out the questionnaire studies and PM exposure assessment, and participated in the drafting of the manuscript. Shihai Lv conceived of the study and contributed ideas in geographical exposure. Zhaoyan Diao participated in the GIS analysis. Baolu Wang carried out the spatial analysis. Caihong Yu helped in the drafting of the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The research presented here was supported by MEP-PRC Project named HBGY 201509040.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study has been approved by Erlianhaote CDC agency, with the number 201601. All volunteers were administered on the condition that informed consents were signed.

Availability of data and supporting materials section

All detail materials were provided in supplement materials. If there is a query, please contact the author for data requests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1841_MOESM1_ESM.doc (63 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 63 kb)
11356_2018_1841_MOESM2_ESM.doc (104 kb)
ESM 2 (DOC 104 kb)
11356_2018_1841_MOESM3_ESM.doc (31 kb)
ESM 3 (DOC 31 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.China University of Mining and TechnologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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