Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 16, pp 15630–15640 | Cite as

Toxicity evaluation of 4,4′-di-CDPS and 4,4′-di-CDE on green algae Scenedesmus obliquus: growth inhibition, change in pigment content, and oxidative stress

  • Bingxin Fang
  • Jiaqi Shi
  • Li Qin
  • Mingbao Feng
  • Danru Cheng
  • Tantan Wang
  • Xuesheng Zhang
Research Article


Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers are two types of dioxin-like pollutants, which are prevalent in aquatic environments. However, to date, limited information is available regarding their toxicity to green algae. In this study, growth inhibition, effect on pigment content, and oxidative stress potentials of 4,4′-di-CDPS and 4,4′-di-CDE on green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were investigated. The results indicate that the EC50 values of 4,4′-di-CDPS after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure were 1.736, 1.172, 0.994, and 0.820 mg/L, while the corresponding values for 4,4′-di-CDE were 0.697, 1.087, 0.833, and 0.327 mg/L. As compared to the control group, most of the measured pigment content in algal cells significantly decreased after 96-h exposure to these two chemicals, suggesting their suppressive capability on the photosynthesis process in algal cells. Additionally, oxidative stress occurred as demonstrated by the significantly inhibited activities of the antioxidant enzymes (total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), and high increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in all 4,4′-di-CDE-treated groups and some moderate-dose and high-dose treatments with 4,4′-di-CDPS. Acute toxicity tests and biochemical analysis showed that 4,4′-di-CDE was more toxic than 4,4′-di-CDPS on S. obliquus.


4,4′-di-CDPS 4,4′-di-CDE Scenedesmus obliquus Acute toxicity Oxidative stress 



This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21607001), the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. 1608085QB45), and the Science Research Project of Anhui Education Department (No. KJ2015A090).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1749_MOESM1_ESM.docx (437 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 437 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bingxin Fang
    • 1
  • Jiaqi Shi
    • 2
  • Li Qin
    • 3
  • Mingbao Feng
    • 4
  • Danru Cheng
    • 1
  • Tantan Wang
    • 1
  • Xuesheng Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Resources and Environmental EngineeringAnhui UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences of the Ministry of Environmental ProtectionNanjingChina
  3. 3.Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public HealthTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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