Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 16, pp 16101–16110 | Cite as

Mitigation of Cr(VI) toxicity using Pd-nanoparticles immobilized catalytic reactor (Pd-NICaR) fabricated via plasma and gamma radiation

  • Nilanjal Misra
  • Virendra Kumar
  • Swarnima Rawat
  • Narender Kumar Goel
  • Shubhangi A. Shelkar
  • Jagannath
  • Rakesh Kumar Singhal
  • Lalit Varshney
Research Article


Catalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) form using metal nanoparticles is one of the novel approaches adopted to deal with Cr toxicity. In this work, we report the fabrication of a facile, reusable, and robust Pd nanoparticles-immobilized catalytic reactor (Pd-NICaR) system using green, environment-friendly gamma radiolytic, and plasma polymerization processes. A room temperature, RF-powered plasma polymerization process was employed to functionalize a polyethylene–polypropylene (PE–PP) non-woven matrix with epoxy group containing monomer 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA). EPMA-functionalized PE–PP (EPMA-f-PE–PP) substrate was subsequently used as a template for in situ generation and immobilization of Pd NPs via gamma radiolytic route. The samples were characterized using FTIR, SEM, XPS, and XRF techniques. The catalytic efficacy of Pd-NICaR towards Cr(VI) reduction, in the presence of formic acid (FA) as a reductant, was investigated spectrophotometrically, and reaction parameters were optimized at reaction temperature of 50 °C and [FA]/[Cr(VI)] = 680 to achieve catalytic reduction efficiency of 99.7% within 10 min in batch process. The system showed excellent reusability (~ 20 cycles) and storage stability (> 30 days) without substantial loss (~ 11%) of activity. Practical applicability of the robust catalytic system towards Cr(VI) toxicity mitigation was established in continuous flow mode using a fixed-bed column reactor.


Cr(VI) toxicity mitigation Plasma polymerization Gamma radiolytic process Pd-nanoparticles immobilized catalytic reactor 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1709_MOESM1_ESM.doc (29 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 29 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radiation Technology Development DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Homi Bhabha National InstituteMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Technical Physics DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Analytical Chemistry DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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