Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10611–10618 | Cite as

The use of probiotics as eco-friendly alternatives for antibiotics in poultry nutrition

  • Mahmoud Alagawany
  • Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
  • Mayada R. Farag
  • Swati Sachan
  • Kumaragurubaran Karthik
  • Kuldeep Dhama
Review Article

Abstract

Antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry have been used for long time for improving feed efficiency and performance. Due to their various side-effects such as antibiotic resistance, destruction of beneficial bacteria in the gut, and dysbiosis, it is required to think about some alternatives. Probiotics are one of the options in this regard for improving poultry production. Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” They are available in various forms for use as feed additives. Probiotics as feed additives aid in proper digestion of feed hence make the nutrients available for faster growth. Immunity can also be improved by addition of probiotics to poultry diets. Moreover, probiotics aid in improving meat and egg quality traits. Various infectious diseases of poultry can be countered by use of probiotics in their feed. A proper selection of probiotic strains is required for gaining optimal effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms of action of probiotics and their importance in poultry feed supplementation for enhancing production and safeguarding health of poultry.

Keywords

Probiotics Mode of action Beneficial aspects Health benefits Poultry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

All the authors of the manuscript thank and acknowledge their respective institutes, universities, and organizations for necessary help in compilation of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. Abd El-Hack ME, Mahgoub SA, Alagawany M, Ashour EA (2017) Improving productive performance and mitigating harmful emissions from laying hen excreta via feeding on graded levels of corn DDGS with or without Bacillus subtilis probiotic. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 101(5):904–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afsari M, Mohebbifarn A, Torki M (2014) Effects of dietary inclusion of olive pulp supplemented with probiotics on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters of laying hens. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 4:198–211Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed ST, Islam MM, Mun HS, Sim HJ, Kim YJ, Yang CJ (2014) Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a probiotic strain on growth performance, cecal microflora, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 93:1963–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack ME, Arif M, Ashour EA (2016) Individual and combined effects of crude protein, methionine, and probiotic levels on laying hen productive performance and nitrogen pollution in the manure. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(22):22906–22913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Fataftah A, Abdelqader A (2014) Effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis on heat-stressed broilers performance, intestinal morphology and microflora composition. Anim Feed Sci Technol 198:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aliakbarpour HR, Chamani M, Rahimi G, Sadeghi AA, And Qujieq D (2012) The Bacillus subtilis and lactic acid bacteria probiotics influences intestinal mucin gene expression, histomorphology and growth performance in broilers. Asian Aust J Anim Sci 25:1285–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alloui MN, Szczurek W, Świątkiewicz S (2013) The usefulness of prebiotics and probiotics in modern poultry nutrition: a review. Ann Anim Sci 13:17–32Google Scholar
  8. Apata DF (2008) Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and immune response of broiler chicks fed diets supplemented with a culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J Sci Food Agric 88:1253–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bai SP, Wu AM, Ding XM, Lei Y, Bai J, Zhang KY, Chio JS (2013) Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 92:663–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borchers AT, Selmi C, Meyers FJ, Keen CL, Gershwin ME (2009) Probiotics and immunity. J Gastroenterology 44:26–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carter A, Adams M, La Ragione RM, Woodward MJ (2017) Colonisation of poultry by Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 is reduced by combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN-33. Vet Microbiol 199:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chow J (2002) Probiotics and prebiotics: a brief overview. J Renal Nutr 12:76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cox CM, Dalloul RA (2015) Immunomodulatory role of probiotics in poultry and potential in ovo application. Benefic Microbes 6:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. David, Collins M, Gibson G R (1999) Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. Am J Clin Nutr 69: 1052S–1057SGoogle Scholar
  15. Dhama K, Karthik K, Tiwari R, Shabbir MZ, Barbuddhe S, Malik SV, Singh RK (2015) Listeriosis in animals, its public health significance (food-borne zoonosis) and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review. Vet Quart 35:211–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dibaji SM, Seidavi A, Asadpour L, Da Silva FM (2014) Effect of a synbiotic on the intestinal microflora of chickens. J Appl Poult Res 23:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ebrahimi H, Rahimi S, Khaki P, Grimes JL, Kathariou S (2016) The effects of probiotics, organic acid, and a medicinal plant on the immune system and gastrointestinal microflora in broilers challenged with Campylobacter jejuni. Tur J Vet Anim Sci 40: 329–336Google Scholar
  18. Eckert NH, Lee JT, Hyatt D, Stevens SM, Anderson S, Anderson PN, Beltran R, Schatzmayr G, Monhl M, Caldwell DJ (2010) Influence of probiotic administration by feed or water on growth parameters of broilers reared on medicated and nonmedicated diets. J Appl Poult Res 19:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. FAO/WHO (2002) Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. [Cited Oct 2012]. Available from http://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/en/probiotic_guidelines.pdf
  20. Faseleh JM, Wesam AY, Shokryazdan P, Ebrahimi R, Ebrahimi M, Idrus Z, Tufarelli V, Liang JB (2016) Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions. Int J Biometeorol 60:1099–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fong FLY, Shah NP, Kirjavainen P, El-Nezami H (2016) Mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria on intestinal and systemic immunities and antigen-presenting cells. Int Rev Immunol 35:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forkus B, Ritter S, Vlysidis M, Geldart K, Kaznessis YN (2017) Antimicrobial probiotics reduce Salmonella enterica in turkey gastrointestinal tracts. Sci Reports 7:40695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fritts CA, Kersey JH, Motl MA, Kroger EC, Yan F, Si J, Jiang Q, Campos MM, Waldroup AP, Waldro PW (2000) Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin) improves live performance and microbiological status of broiler chickens. J Appl Poult Res 9:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghareeb K, Awad WA, Mohnl M, Porta R, Biarnés M, Böhm J, Schatzmayr G (2012) Evaluating the efficacy of an avian-specific probiotic to reduce the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 91:1825–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giannenas I, Papadopoulos E, Tsalie E, Triantafillou EL, Henikl S, Teichmann K, Tontis D (2012) Assessment of dietary supplementation with probiotics on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. Vet Parasitol 188:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Higgins JP, Higgins SE, Vicente JL, Wolfenden AD, Tellez G, Hargis BM (2007) Temporal effects of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture on Salmonella in neonatal broilers. Poult Sci 86:1662–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, Gibson GR, Merenstein DJ, Pot B, Morelli L, Canani RB, Flint HJ, Salminen S, Calder PC, Sanders ME (2014) Expert consensus document. The international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:506–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hrnčár C, Gašparovič M, Weis J, Arpášová H, Pistová V, Fik M, Bujko J (2016) Effect of three-strain probiotic on productive performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Sci Papers Anim Sci Biotechnol 49:149–154Google Scholar
  29. Hu L, Shao Y, Jiang N, Gao X, Liu C, Lv X, Zheng S (2016) Effects of probiotic on the expression of IL-7 gene and immune response to Newcastle disease vaccine in broilers. Int J Health Sci Res 4:140–148Google Scholar
  30. Iannitti T, Palmieri B (2010) Therapeutical use of probiotic formulations in clinical practice. Clin Nutr 29:701–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jiang T, Li HS, Han GG, Singh B, Kang SK, Bok JD, Kim DD, Hong ZS, Choi YJ, Cho CS (2017) Oral delivery of probiotics in poultry using pH-sensitive tablets. J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:739–746.  https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1606.06071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jones ML, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Martoni CJ, Prakash S (2013) Cholesterol lowering with bile salt hydrolase-active probiotic bacteria, mechanism of action, clinical evidence, and future direction for heart health applications. Expert Opin Biol Ther 13:631–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kabir SML (2009) The role of probiotics in the poultry industry. Int J Mol Sci 10:3531–3546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kabir SL, Rahman SM, Neogi SB, Rahman MM, Khan MSR (2016) Isolation, identification, molecular characterization and screening of probiotic activities of Lactobacillus species from poultry sources at live bird markets in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Asian-Aust J Biosci Biotech 1:54–65Google Scholar
  35. Kim YJ, Bostami AR, Islam MM, Mun HS, Ko SY, Yang CJ (2016) Effect of fermented ginkgo biloba and camelia sinensis-based probiotics on growth performance, immunity and caecal microbiology in broilers. Int J Poult Sci 15:62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee KW, Lillehoj HS, Jang SI, Li G, Lee SH, Lillehoj EP, Siragusa GR (2010) Effect of Bacillus-based direct fed microbials on Eimeria maxima infection in broiler chickens. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infec Dis 33:e105–e110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liao XD, Ma G, Cai J, Fu Y, Yan XY, Wei XB, Zhang RJ (2015) Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers. Poult Sci 94:662–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murarolli VDA, Burbarelli MFC, Polycarpo GV, Ribeiro PAP, Moro MEG, Albuquerque R (2014) Prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as alternative to antibiotics on the performance and immune response of broiler chickens. Br J Poult Sci 16:279–284Google Scholar
  39. Newaj-Fyzul A, Al-Harbi AH, Austin B (2014) Review: developments in the use of probiotics for disease control in aquaculture. Aquaculture 431:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nishiyama K, Seto Y, Yoshioka K, Kakuda T, Takai S, Yamamoto Y, Mukai T (2014) Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces infection by and colonization of Campylobacter jejuni. PLoS One 9:e108827.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108827 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oelschlaeger TA (2010) Mechanisms of probiotic actions—a review. Int J Med Microbiol 300:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oh JK, Pajarillo EAB, Chae JP, Kim IH, Yang DS, Kang DK (2017) Effects of Bacillus subtilis CSL2 on the composition and functional diversity of the faecal microbiota of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Gallinarum. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 8:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ohashi Y, Ushida K (2009) Health-beneficial effects of probiotics: its mode of action. Anim Sci J 80:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Palamidi I, Fegeros K, Mohnl M, Abdelrahman WHA, Schatzmayr G, Theodoropoulos G, Mountzouris KC (2016) Probiotic form effects on growth performance, digestive function, and immune related biomarkers in broilers. Poult Sci 95:1598–1608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Park JH, Kim IH (2015) The effects of the supplementation of Bacillus subtilis RX7 and B2A strains on the performance, blood profiles, intestinal Salmonella concentration, noxious gas emission, organ weight and breast meat quality of broiler challenged with Salmonella typhimurium. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 99:326–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Patel SG, Raval AP, Bhagwat SR, Sadrasaniya DA, Patel AP, Joshi SS (2015) Effects of probiotics supplementation on growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economics of broilers. J Anim Res 5:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pender CM, Kim S, Potter TD, Ritzi MM, Young M, Dalloul RA (2016a) In ovo supplementation of probiotics and its effects on performance and immune-related gene expression in broiler chicks. Poult Sci.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew381
  48. Pender CM, Kim S, Potter TD, Ritzi MM, Young M, Dalloul RA (2016b) Effects of in ovo supplementation of probiotics on performance and immunocompetence of broiler chicks to an Eimeria challenge. Benefic Microbes 7:699–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Perdigon G, Alvarez S, Rachid M, Aguero G, Gobbato N (1995) Immune system stimulation by probiotics. J Dairy Sci 78:1597–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Popova T (2017) Effect of probiotics in poultry for improving meat quality. Curr Opin Food Sci 14:72–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Raghuwanshi S, Misra S, Bisen PS (2015) Indian perspective for probiotics: a review. Ind J Dairy Sci 68:3Google Scholar
  52. Rajput IR, Li LY, Xin X, Wu BB, Juan ZL, Cui ZW, Yu DY, Li WF (2013) Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 on intestinal ultrastructure modulation and mucosal immunity development mechanism in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 92:956–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S, Wong M, Ho YW (2009) Effects of Lactobacillus cultures on performance of laying hens and total cholesterol, lipid and fatty acid composition of egg yolk. J Sci Food Agric 89:482–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ramasamy KM, Abdullah N, Wong MC, Karuthan C, Ho YW (2010) Bile salt deconjugation and cholesterol removal from media by Lactobacillus strains used as probiotics in chickens. J Sci Food Agric 90:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rather IA, Choi KH, Bajpai VK, Park YH (2015) Antiviral mode of action of Lactobacillus plantarum YML009 on Influenza virus H1N1. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 10:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ribeiro V Jr, Albino LFT, Rostagno HS, Barreto SLT, Hannas MI, Harrington D, Dearaujo FA, Ferrei Raj RHC, Ferreira MA (2014) Effects of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis levels on performance, egg quality and excreta moisture of layers. Anim Feed Sci Technol 195:142–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ritzi MM, Rahman W, Amohnl M, Rami A (2014) Effects of probiotics and application methods on performance and response of broiler chickens to an Eimeria challenge. Poult Sci 93:2772–2778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ritzi MM, Abdelrahman W, Van-Heerden K, Mohnl M, Barrett NW, Dalloul RA (2016) Combination of probiotics and coccidiosis vaccine enhances protection against an Eimeria challenge. Vet Res 47:111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roselli M, Finamore A, Britti MS, Bosi P, Oswald I, Mengheri E (2005) Alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in pigs: evaluation of probiotics, zinc or organic acids as protective agents for the intestinal mucosa. A comparison of in vitro and in vivo results. Anim Res 54:203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saint-Cyr MJ, Guyard-Nicodème M, Messaoudi S, Chemaly M, Cappelier JM, Dousset X, Haddad N (2016) Recent advances in screening of anti-campylobacter activity in probiotics for use in poultry. Front Microbiol 7:553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sen S, Ingale SL, Kim YW, Kim JS, Kim KH, Lohakare JD, Kim EK, Kim HS, Ryu MH, Kwon IK, Chae BJ (2012) Effect of supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS1- 2 to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbiology and small intestinal morphology. Res Vet Sci 93:264–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sharifi SD, Dibamehr A, Lotfollahian H, Baurhoo B (2012) Effects of flavomycin and probiotic supplementation to diets containing different sources of fat on growth performance, intestinal morphology, apparent metabolizable energy, and fat digestibility in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 91:918–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Silva VK, Silva JDTD, Gravena RA, Marques RH, Hada FH, Moraes VMBD (2010) Yeast extract and prebiotic in pre-initial phase diet for broiler chickens raised under different temperatures. Rev Bras Zootec 39:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sobczak A, Kozłowski K (2015) The effect of a probiotic preparation containing Bacillus subtilis a Tcc pTa-6737 on egg production and physiological parameters of laying hens. Ann Anim Sci 15:711–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Soccol CR, Vandenberghe LPDS, Spier MR, Medeiros ABP, Yamaguishi CT, Lindner JDD, Pandey A, Thomaz-Soccol V (2010) The potential of probiotics: a review. Food Technol Biotechnol 48:413–434Google Scholar
  66. Song J, Xiao K, Ke Y, Jiao LF, Hu CH, Diao QY, Shi B, Zhou XT (2014) Effect of a probiotic mixture on intestinal microflora, morphology, and barrier interity of broilers subjected to heat stress. Poult Sci 93:581–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sornplang P, Piyadeatsoontorn S (2016) Probiotic isolates from unconventional sources: a review. J Anim Sci Technol 58:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tang SG, Sieo CC, Kalavathy R, Saad WZ, Yong ST, Wong HK, Ho YW (2015) Chemical compositions of egg yolks and egg quality of laying hens fed prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic diets. J Food Sci 8:C1686-95Google Scholar
  69. Tiwari G, Tiwari R, Pandey S, Pandey P (2012) Promising future of probiotics for human health: current scenario. Chronicles Young Sci 3:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, Dhama K, Wani MY, Kumar A, Kapoor S (2014) Wonder world of phages: potential biocontrol agents safeguarding biosphere and health of animals and humans—current scenario and perspectives. Pak J Biol Sci 17:316–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tolouei T, Hassanzadeh M, Gh N, Alkaragoly H, Rezaei Far A, Ghahri H (2017) Efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and protexin on systemic and mucosal immune response to Newcastle diseases virus vaccination (VG/GA strain) in commercial turkey poults. Ir J Vet Med 11:85–95Google Scholar
  72. Wang Y, Gu Q (2010) Effect of probiotic on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of Arbor Acres broilers. Res Vet Sci 89:163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yadav AS, Kolluri G, Gopi M, Karthik K, Malik YS, Dhama K (2016) Exploring alternatives to antibiotics as health promoting agents in poultry—a review. J Exp Biol Agric Sci 4(3s):368–383Google Scholar
  74. Yang CM, Cao GT, Ferket PR, Liu TT, Zhou L, Zhang L, Xiao YP, Chen AG (2012) Effects of probiotic, Clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 91:2121–2129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yörük MA, Gül M, Hayirli A, Macit M (2004) The effects of supplementation of humate and probiotic on egg production and quality parameters during the late laying period in hens. Poult Sci 83:84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yosef TA, Al-Julaifi MZ, Kandeel M (2012) The effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) probiotics on broilers exposed to lead-induced oxidative stress. J Am Sci 8:499–506Google Scholar
  77. Youssef AW, Hassan HMA, Ali HM, Mohamed MA (2013) Effect of probiotics, prebiotics and organic acids on layer performance and egg quality. Asian J Poult Sci 7:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zaghari M, Zahroojian N, Riahi M, Parhizkar S (2015) Effect of Bacillus subtilis spore (GalliPro®) nutrients equivalency value on broiler chicken performance. Italian J Anim Sci 14:3555.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2015.3555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang ZF, Kim IH (2014) Effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal microbial shedding, and excreta odor contents in broilers. Poult Sci 93:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zorriehzahra MJ, Delshad ST, Adel M, Tiwari R, Karthik K, Dhama K, Lazado CC (2016) Probiotics as beneficial microbes in aquaculture: an update on their multiple modes of action: a review. Vet Q 36:228–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud Alagawany
    • 1
  • Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
    • 1
  • Mayada R. Farag
    • 2
  • Swati Sachan
    • 3
  • Kumaragurubaran Karthik
    • 4
  • Kuldeep Dhama
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Poultry, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Immunology Section, ICAR – Indian Veterinary Research InstituteIzatnagarIndia
  4. 4.Central University Laboratory, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityChennaiIndia
  5. 5.Division of Pathology, ICAR – Indian Veterinary Research InstituteIzatnagarIndia

Personalised recommendations