Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 10135–10140 | Cite as

UV-irradiated 2-methyl-4′-(methylthio)-2-morpholinopropiophenone-containing injection solution produced frameshift mutations in the Ames mutagenicity assay

  • Mariko Takai
  • Yoichi Kawasaki
  • Sakae Arimoto
  • Yusuke Tanimoto
  • Yoshihisa Kitamura
  • Toshiaki Sendo
Short Research and Discussion Article


In previous studies, we detected the photoinitiators 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (1-HCHPK), methyl 2-benzoylbenzoate (MBB), and 2-methyl-4′-(methylthio)-2-morpholinopropiophenone (MTMP) in intravenous injection solutions. In addition, we reported that 1-HCHPK, MBB, and MTMP exhibited cytotoxicity towards normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A previous in vitro study reported that a free-radical photoinitiator introduced covalently bound purine residues into DNA. However, little is known about the in vitro mutagenicity of 1-HCHPK, MBB, and MTMP. In the present in vitro study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of 1-HCHPK, MBB, and MTMP using the Ames test. We found that untreated 1-HCHPK, MBB, and MTMP were not mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, or TA1535, regardless of the presence/absence of S9 activation. However, ultraviolet (UV) light-irradiated MTMP exhibited mutagenicity in S. typhimurium strain TA97 in the absence of S9 activation. In conclusion, we suggest that exposure to UV-irradiated MTMP, including in intravenous injection solutions, can result in frameshift mutations.


Photoinitiator 2-methyl-4′-(methylthio)-2-morpholinopropiophenone UV irradiation Frameshift Mutation Injection Ames test 



This study was supported in part by the NIBB Cooperative Research Program for the Okazaki Large Spectrograph (15-607).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical SciencesOkayama University Graduate School of MedicineOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of PharmacyOkayama University HospitalOkayamaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical SciencesOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan

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