Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 11841–11853 | Cite as

Achieving an extraordinary high organic and hydraulic loadings with good performance via an alternative operation strategy in a multi-stage constructed wetland system

  • Xiaohong Zhao
  • Yuansheng Hu
  • Yaqian Zhao
  • Lordwin Kumar
Research Article
  • 76 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, a high organic loading rate of 58–146 g BOD5/m2 day with a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 1.63 m3/m2 day and retention time (RT) of 16 h was achieved to maximize the treatment capacity of a four-stage alum sludge-based constructed wetland (CW) system. An alternative operation strategy, i.e., the first stage anaerobic up-flow and the remaining stage tidal flow with effluent recirculation, was investigated to achieve the goal with good treatment performance of 82% COD, 91% BOD5, 92% SS, 94% NH4-N, and 82% TN removal. Two kinetic models, i.e., first-order model and Monod plus continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) flow model, were employed for predicting the removal dynamics. The results showed that the tidal flow strategy enhances oxygen transport and diffusion, thus improving reduction of organics and NH4-N. Effluent recirculation could further increase elimination of organics by extending the interaction time and also benefit the denitrification process. In addition, denitrification could be further enhanced by anaerobic up-flow in the first stage.

Keywords

Constructed wetland High-strength wastewater Anaerobic up-flow Effluent recirculation Tidal flow Organic and hydraulic loadings 

Notes

Funding information

The authors greatly acknowledge the research financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers: 41302208 and 41572235). The first author would like to thank University College Dublin for the Ad Astra scholarship.

References

  1. Albuquerque A, Oliveira J, Semitela S, Amaral L (2009) Influence of bed media characteristics on ammonia and nitrate removal in shallow horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Bioresour Technol 100(24):6269–6277.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Babatunde A, Zhao Y, O’Neill M, O’Sullivan B (2008) Constructed wetlands for environmental pollution control: a review of developments, research and practice in Ireland. Environ Int 34(1):116–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2007.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babatunde A, Zhao Y, Zhao X (2010) Alum sludge-based constructed wetland system for enhance removal of P and OM from wastewater: concept, design and performance analysis. Bioresour Technol 101(16):6576–6579.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boog J, Nivala J, Aubron T, Wallace S, van Afferden M, Müller RA (2014) Hydraulic characterization and optimization of total nitrogen removal in an aerated vertical subsurface flow treatment wetland. Bioresour Technol 162:166–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brix H (1994) Use of constructed wetland in water pollution control: historical development, present status, and future perspectives. Water Sci Technol 30(8):209–223Google Scholar
  7. Cerezo RG, Suarez ML, Vidal-Abarca MR (2001) The performance of multi-stage system of constructed wetlands for urban wastewater treatment in a semiarid region of SE Spain. Ecol Eng 16(4):501–517.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00114-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan SY, Tsang YF, Cui LH, Chua H (2008) Domestic wastewater treatment using batch-fed constructed wetland and predictive model development for NH3-N removal. Process Biochem 43(3):297–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2007.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foladori P, Ruaben J, Ortigara ARC, Andreottola G (2014) Batch feed and intermittent recirculation to increase removed loads in a vertical subsurface flow filter. Ecol Eng 70:124–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gujer W, Henze M, Mino T, van Loodrecht M (1999) Activated sludge model no. 3. Water Sci Technol 39(1):183–193Google Scholar
  11. Henze M, Harremoes P, Jansen JLC, Arvin E (1995) Wastewater treatment: biological and chemical processes. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Hu Y, Zhao Y, Zhao X, Kumar JLG (2012a) Comprehensive analysis of step-feeding strategy to enhance biological nitrogen removal in alum sludge-based tidal flow constructed wetlands. Bioresour Technol 111:27–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu Y, Zhao Y, Zhao X, Kumar JLG (2012b) High rate nitrogen removal in an alum sludge-based intermittent aeration constructed wetland. Environ Sci Technol 46(8):4583–4590.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es204105h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hu Y, Zhao Y, Rymszewicz A (2014) Robust biological nitrogen removal by creating multiple tides in a single bed tidal flow constructed wetland. Sci Total Environ 470-471:1197–1204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jamieson R, Gordon R, Wheeler N, Smith E, Stratton G, Madani A (2007) Determination of first order rate constants for wetlands treating livestock wastewater in cold climates. J Environ Eng Sci 6(1):65–72.  https://doi.org/10.1139/s06-028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ju X, Wu S, Zhang Y, Dong R (2014) Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system. Water Res 59:37–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kadlec RK (2000) The inadequacy of first-order treatment wetland models. Ecol Eng 15(1-2):105–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(99)00039-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kadlec RH, Knight RL (1996) Treatment wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  19. Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2009) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Taylor& Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  20. Kantawanichkul S, Neamkam P, Shutes RBE (2001) Nitrogen removal in a combined system: vertical flow vegetated bed over horizontal flow sand bed. Water Sci Technol 44(11–12):137–142Google Scholar
  21. Li F, Lu L, Zheng X, Ngo H-H, Liang S, Guo W, Zhang X (2014) Enhanced nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands: effects of dissolved oxygen and step-feeding. Bioresour Technol 169:395–402.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu H, Hu Z, Zhang J, Ngo H-H, Guo W, Liang S, Fan J, Lu S, Wu H (2016) Optimizations on supply and distribution of dissolved oxygen in constructed wetlands: a review. Bioresour Technol 214:797–805.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu R, Mao Y, Shen C, Zhao Y (2017) Can biofilm affect alum sludge adsorption: an engineering scope in a novel biofilm reactor for wastewater treatment. Chem Eng J 328:683–690.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.07.081 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maltais-Landry G, Maranger R, Brisson J, Chazarenc F (2009) Nitrogen transformations and retention in planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands. Water Res 43(2):535–545.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mayo AW, Mutamba J (2005) Modelling nitrogen removal in a coupled HRP and unplanted horizontal flow subsurface gravel bed constructed wetland. Phys Chem Earth 30(11-16):673–679.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2005.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Noorvee A, Põldvere E, Mander Ü (2007) The effect of pre-aeration on the purification processes in the long-term performance of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. Sci Total Environ 380(1-3):229–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Park WH (2009) Integrated constructed wetland systems employing alum sludge and oyster shells as filter media for P removal. Ecol Eng 35(8):1275–1282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.05.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pelissari C, Santos M, Rousso B, Bento A, Armas R, Sezerino P (2016) Organic load and hydraulic regime influence over the bacterial community responsible for the nitrogen cycling in bed media of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 95:180–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rousseau DPL, Vanrolleghem PA, De Pauw N (2004) Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wetlands: a review. Water Res 38(6):1484–1493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saeed T, Sun G (2011) The removal of nitrogen and organics in vertical flow wetland reactors: predictive models. Bioresour Technol 102(2):1205–1213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sklarz MY, Gross A, Soares MIM, Yakirevich A (2010) Mathematical model for analysis of recirculating vertical flow constructed wetlands. Water Res 44(6):2010–2020.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sun G, Saeed T (2009) Kinetic modeling of organic matter removal in 80 horizontal flow reed beds for domestic sewage treatment. Process Biochem 44(7):717–722.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2009.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sun G, Gray KR, Biddlestone AJ (1999a) Treatment of agricultural wastewater in a pilot-scale tidal flow reed bed system. Environ Technol 20(2):233–237.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593332008616813 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun G, Gray KR, Biddlestone AJ, Cooper DJ (1999b) Treatment of agricultural wastewater in a combined tidal flow-downflow reed bed system. Water Sci Technol 40(3):139–146Google Scholar
  35. Sun G, Gray KR, Biddlestone AJ, Allen SJ, Cooper DJ (2003) Effect of effluent recirculation on the performance of a reed bed system treating agricultural wastewater. Process Biochem 39:35–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tang XQ, Huang SL, Scholz M (2008) Comparison of phosphorus removal between vertical and subsurface flow constructed wetlands with different substrates. Water Environ 23:180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tchobanoglous G, Burton FL, Stensel HD (2003) Wastewater engineering: treatment disposal and reuse, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Torrijos V, Gonzalo OG, Trueba-Santiso A, Ruiz I, Soto M (2016) Effect of by-pass and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal in hybrid constructed wetlands for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment. Water Res 103:92–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.07.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. USEPA (1998) Constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems for municipal wastewater treatment. Design manual, EPA 625:1-88:022. Office of Research and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. Vaccari DA, Storm PE, Alleman JE (2006) Environmental biology for engineers and scientists. John Wiey & Sons, Inc, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  41. Valipour A, Ahn Y-H (2016) Constructed wetlands as sustainable ecotechnologies in decentralization practices: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(1):180–197.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5713-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vymazal J, Brˇezinová T (2016) Accumulation of heavy metals in aboveground biomass of Phragmites australis in horizontal flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: a review. Chem Eng J 290:232–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.12.108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang Z, Huang M, Qi R, Zhang Y (2017) Enhancing nitrogen removal via the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage tidal flow constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 103(A:170–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Weedon CM (2003) Compact vertical flow constructed wetland systems-first 2 years performance. Water Sci Technol 48(5):15–23Google Scholar
  45. Wiesmann U (1994) Biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. In: Fletcher A (ed) Advances in biochemical engineering biotechnology. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 51,113–51,154Google Scholar
  46. Wu S, Kuschk P, Brix H, Vymazal J, Dong R (2014) Development of constructed wetlands in performance intensifications for wastewater treatment: a nitrogen and organic matter targeted review. Water Res 57:40–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhao Y, Sun G, Lafferty C, Allen SJ (2004) Optimising the performance of a lab-scale tidal flow reed bed system treating agricultural wastewater. Water Sci Technol 50(8):65–72Google Scholar
  48. Zhao Y, Babatunde A, Zhao X, Li W (2009) Development of alum sludge-based constructed wetland: an innovative and cost effective system for wastewater treatment. J Environ Sci Health A 44(8):827–832.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520902928685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhao Y, Babatunde A, Hu Y, Kumar JLG, Zhao X (2011) Pilot field-scale demonstration of a novel alum sludge-based constructed wetland system for enhanced wastewater treatment. Process Biochem 46(1):278–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2010.08.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zurita F, De Anda J, Belmont MA (2009) Treatment of domestic wastewater and production of commericial flowers in vertical and horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 35(5):861–869.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.12.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Water Supply and Drainage, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural DevelopmentChang’an UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Urban Stormwater System and Water Environment/R&D Centre for Sustainable Wastewater TreatmentBeijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ministry of EducationBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.UCD Dooge Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Civil EngineeringUniversity College DublinDublin 4Ireland
  4. 4.Department of Soil Water Land Engineering and Management, Vaugh School of Agricultural Engineering and TechnologySam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & SciencesAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations