Removal of organochlorine pesticides from lindane production wastes by electrochemical oxidation
- 38 Downloads
This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant pollutants hexaclorocyclohexanes (HCHs, isomers α, β, γ, and δ) and chlorobenzenes (CBs) present in a real groundwater coming from a landfill of an old lindane factory. Groundwater is characterized by a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 9 mg L−1, pH0 = 7, conductivity = 3.7 mS cm−1, high salt concentration (SO42−, HCO3−, Cl−), and ferrous iron in solution. The experiments were performed using a BDD anode and a carbon felt (CF) cathode at the natural groundwater pH and without addition of supporting electrolyte. The complete depletion of the four HCH isomers and a mineralization degree of 90% were reached at 4-h electrolysis with a current intensity of 400 mA, the residual TOC (0.8 mg L−1) corresponding mainly to formic acid. A parallel series reaction pathway was proposed: HCHs and CBs are transformed into chlorinated and hydroxylated intermediates that are rapidly oxidized to non-toxic carboxylic acids and/or mineralized, leading to a rapid decrease in solution pH.
KeywordsOrganochlorine pesticides Hexachlorocyclohexanes Lindane BDD Carbon felt Hydroxyl radical Electrochemical oxidation
The authors acknowledge Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée (France) for research facilities. Carmen M. Dominguez acknowledges the Spanish MINECO for “Juan de la Cierva” post-doctoral grant (FJCI-2014-20732) and the “José Castillejo” mobility program (CAS16/00255).
- Bocos E, Oturan N, Sanromán MÁ, Oturan MA (2016) Elimination of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid from water by electrochemical advanced oxidation: kinetics study, mechanism and mineralization pathway. J Electroanal Chem 772:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2016.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Canizares P, Hernández-Ortega M, Rodrigo M, Barrera-Díaz C, Roa-Morales G, Sáez C (2009) A comparison between conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation and other advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of synthetic melanoidins. J Hazard Mater 164(1):120–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.07.134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dirany A, Efremova-Aaron S, Oturan N, Sirés I, Oturan MA, Aaron JJ (2011) Study of the toxicity of sulfamethoxazole and its degradation products in water by a bioluminescence method during application of the electro-Fenton treatment. Anal Bioanal Chem 400(2):353–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4441-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khan S, Han C, Khan HM, Boccelli DL, Dionysiou DD (2017) Efficient degradation of lindane by visible and simulated solar light-assisted S-TiO2/peroxymonosulfate process: kinetics and mechanistic investigations. J Mol Catal A-Chem 428:9–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2016.11.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mascia M, Vacca A, Polcaro AM, Palmas S, Ruiz JR, Da Pozzo A (2010) Electrochemical treatment of phenolic waters in presence of chloride with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes: experimental study and mathematical model. J Hazard Mater 174(1-3):314–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sandell EB (1959) Colorimetric determination of traces of metals. Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, Vol. 59, No. 6, p. 481Google Scholar
- Vega M, Romano D, Uotila E. (2016) Lindane (persistent organic pollutant) in the EU. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. Petitions (PETI). PE 571.398Google Scholar
- Vijgen J (2006) The legacy of lindane HCH isomer production. Main report. International HCH & Pesticides Association, Holte, JanuaryGoogle Scholar
- Vijgen J, Abhilash P, Li YF, Lal R, Forter M, Torres J, Singh N, Yunus M, Tian C, Schäffer A (2011) Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) as new Stockholm convention POPs—a global perspective on the management of Lindane and its waste isomers. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18(2):152–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-010-0417-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yahya MS, Oturan N, El Kacemi K, El Karbane M, Aravindakumar CT, Oturan MA (2014) Oxidative degradation study on antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin by electro-Fenton process: kinetics and oxidation products. Chemosphere 117:447–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.08.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar