Association of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference
This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6–18 years living in Isfahan, Iran. Urinary concentration of mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethyl-5-exohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) metabolites were determined. For comparison of means, t test and to evaluate the association of analytes in different groups according to weight ANOVA was used. The correlation was applied to determine the association between phthalate metabolites with age, sex, WC, BMI, and BMI z-score. The univariate and multivariate regression models were used to determine the association of metabolites concentration with BMI z-score and WC. Mean (SD) BMI, BMI z-score and WC were 23.89 (4.41) kg/m2, 1.37 (1.3), and 82.37 (12.71) cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between boys’ age with BMI z-score (p value = 0.03) and WC (p value = 0.01), while the corresponding figures were not statistically significant in girls (p value = 0.48, and 0.4, respectively). Of the total population, 37 participants (15.3%) were obese. MMP, MBP, and MBzP metabolites were observed in all samples while MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP in 99.6, 95.86, and 96.28% of the studied population. Mean concentration of MMP (64.38 μg/L) and MBzP (268 μg/L) had the lowest and highest concentrations of metabolites, respectively. A significant relationship was observed among all studied metabolites and weight groups (p value ≤ 0.02). After adjustment for potential confounders, all metabolites (except MMP) showed a low-to-moderate positive and significant relationship with BMI z-score (β = 0.17–0.3). A weak to moderate positive and significant relationship was observed between all phthalate metabolites and WC (β = 0.14–0.39). The concentration of phthalate metabolites was much higher in the population living in Isfahan-Iran than in some other populations, indicating a high exposure to contaminants. Therefore, further studies and preventive measures are required for improving the environmental health.
KeywordsPhthalate Obesity Urinary metabolites Children Adolescent
The authors wish to thank Vice Chancellor of Research of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Iran for the financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) (2003) Second national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. CDC, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- (2012) The Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, February 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Center for Environmental Health; Division of Laboratory Sciences; Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
- Damstra T, Barlow S, Bergman A, Kavlock R, Van Der Kraak G (2002) Global assessment of the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Deierlein AL, Wolff MS, Pajak A, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Galvez MP, Silva MJ, Calafat AM, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Teitelbaum SL, Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program (2016) Longitudinal associations of phthalate exposures during childhood and body size measurements in young girls. Epidemiology 27(4):492–499. https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000000489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hatch EE, Nelson JW, Qureshi MM, Weinberg J, Moore LL, Singer M et al (2008) Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002. Environ Health 7:27. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-7-27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kelishadi R, Majdzadeh R, Motlagh ME, Heshmat R, Aminaee T, Ardalan G, Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L, Poursafa P, Movahedian M (2012) Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for assessment of determinants of weight disorders among children and adolescents: the Caspian-IV study. Int J Prev Med 3:699Google Scholar
- Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Mei Z et al (2000) CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11 2002(246):1–190Google Scholar
- Owen C, Nightingale C, Rudnicka A, Sattar N, Cook D, Ekelund U et al (2010) Physical activity, obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in 9-to 10-year-old UK children of white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean origin: the Child Heart and health Study in England (CHASE). Diabetologia 53(8):1620–1630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-010-1781-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parastar S, Ebrahimpour K, Hashemi M, Maracy MR, Ebrahimi A, Poursafa P et al (2017) Association of urinary concentrations of four chlorophenol pesticides with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents. Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–8Google Scholar
- Sarath Josh M, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma K, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel U, Doble M et al (2014) Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and retinoid X receptor α, β, γ subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol 34(7):754–765. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.2902 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saravanabhavan G, Guay M, Langlois É, Giroux S, Murray J, Haines D (2013) Biomonitoring of phthalate metabolites in the Canadian population through the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009). Int J Hyg Environ Health 216(6):652–661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar