Evaluation of vulnerable PM2.5-exposure individuals: a repeated-measure study in an elderly population
- 129 Downloads
Numerous studies have shown that elderly people are susceptible to high-level particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) exposure. However, not all elderly people exposed to PM2.5 suffer from diseases. In this study, we aim to establish a method to predict the vulnerable PM2.5-exposure individuals among elderly population. Fourteen elderly people were recruited from May 8 to July 4, 2016, in Nanjing, China. Ten physiological indicators were repeatedly measured for 15 times. Liner mixed-effects model, principal component analysis (PCA), and PM2.5 lag score were used to estimate the effects of PM2.5 on blood pressure, pulse, and lung function. As a result, each quartile increase of ambient PM2.5 was significantly associated with increased pulse (P < 0.05 for lag0, 1, 4, 0–1, 0–2, 0–3, and 0–5 days), decreased blood pressure (P < 0.05 for lag4 and 0–3 days), and decreased lung function (P < 0.05 for lag0, 1, 0–1, and 0–2 days) among the 14 elderly people. In terms of pulse or lung function, three elderly people were considered as vulnerable PM2.5-exposure individuals. No vulnerable individual was found for blood pressure. Blood pressure, pulse, and lung function could be affected by high-level PM2.5 exposure in elderly people. This method for screening three elderly people may provide a new insight on identifying the vulnerable PM2.5-exposure individuals.
KeywordsPM2.5 Elderly population Blood pressure Pulse Lung function Repeated-measure Vulnerable PM2.5-exposure individuals
This study was partly supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC0211600), The Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (15KJB330002), Undergraduates Training Programs of Innovation and Entrepreneurship of Jiangsu Province (201510312001Z), Collaborative research project of Southeast University-Nanjing Medical University (2242017K3DN16), Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Personalized Medicine, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (Public Health and Preventive Medicine).
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Baccarelli A, Barretta F, Dou C, Zhang X, McCracken JP, Diaz A, Bertazzi PA, Schwartz J, Wang S, Hou L (2011) Effects of particulate air pollution on blood pressure in a highly exposed population in Beijing, China: a repeated-measure study. Environ Health 10(1):108. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-10-108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berhane (2008) Early diagnosis of asthma modifies the effect of air pollution on lung development in children. Epidemiology 19:S58Google Scholar
- Chen R, Zhao A, Chen H, Zhao Z, Cai J, Wang C, Yang C, Li H, Xu X, Ha S, Li T, Kan H (2015a) Cardiopulmonary benefits of reducing indoor particles of outdoor origin: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial of air purifiers. J Am Coll Cardiol 65(21):2279–2287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.03.553 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen R, Zhao Z, Sun Q, Lin Z, Zhao A, Wang C, Xia Y, Xu X, Kan H (2015b) Size-fractionated particulate air pollution and circulating biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and vasoconstriction in a panel of young adults. Epidemiology 26(3):328–336. https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000000273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cohen AJ, Brauer M, Burnett R, Anderson HR, Frostad J, Estep K, Balakrishnan K, Brunekreef B, Dandona L, Dandona R, Feigin V, Freedman G, Hubbell B, Jobling A, Kan H, Knibbs L, Liu Y, Martin R, Morawska L, Pope CA III, Shin H, Straif K, Shaddick G, Thomas M, van Dingenen R, van Donkelaar A, Vos T, Murray CJL, Forouzanfar MH (2017) Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015. Lancet 389(10082):1907–1918. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30505-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dabass A, Talbott EO, Venkat A, Rager J, Marsh GM, Sharma RK, Holguin F (2016) Association of exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in adult NHANES participants (2001–2008). Int J Hyg Environ Health 219(3):301–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ebelt ST, Wilson WE, Brauer M (2005) Exposure to ambient and nonambient components of particulate matter: a comparison of health effects. Epidemiology 16(3):396–405. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000158918.57071.3e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fan ZT, Meng Q, Weisel C, Laumbach R, Ohman-Strickland P, Shalat S, Hernandez MZ, Black K (2009) Acute exposure to elevated PM2.5 generated by traffic and cardiopulmonary health effects in healthy older adults. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 19(5):525–533. https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2008.46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fisher JE, Loft S, Ulrik CS, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Hertel O, Tjonneland A, Overvad K, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Andersen ZJ (2016) Physical activity, air pollution, and the risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 194(7):855–865. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201510-2036OC CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hou L, Zhang X, Dioni L, Barretta F, Dou C, Zheng Y, Hoxha M, Bertazzi PA, Schwartz J, Wu S, Wang S, Baccarelli AA (2013) Inhalable particulate matter and mitochondrial DNA copy number in highly exposed individuals in Beijing, China: a repeated-measure study. Part Fibre Toxicol 10(1):17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-10-17 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jaana H, Breton CV, Tang WHW, Frederick L, Hazen SL, Gilliland FD, Hooman A (2016) Ambient air pollution is associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis and incident myocardial infarction in patients undergoing elective cardiac evaluation. J Am Heart Assoc Cardiovasc Cerebrovasc Dis 5:e003947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kalappanavar NK, Vinodkumar CS, Gouli C, Sanjay D, Nagendra K, Basavarajappa KG, Patil R (2012) Carbon particles in airway macrophage as a surrogate marker in the early detection of lung diseases. Int J Occup Environ Med 3(2):68–75Google Scholar
- Lipsett MJ, Ostro BD, Reynolds P, Goldberg D, Hertz A, Jerrett M, Smith DF, Garcia C, Chang ET, Bernstein L (2011) Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiorespiratory disease in the California teachers study cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(7):828–835. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201012-2082OC CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mar TF, Koenig JQ, Jansen K, Sullivan J, Kaufman J, Trenga CA, Siahpush SH, Liu LJ, Neas L (2005) Fine particulate air pollution and cardiorespiratory effects in the elderly. Epidemiology 16(5):681–687. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000173037.83211.d6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pope CR, Burnett RT, Krewski D, Jerrett M, Shi Y, Calle EE, Thun MJ (2009) Cardiovascular mortality and exposure to airborne fine particulate matter and cigarette smoke: shape of the exposure-response relationship. Circulation 120(11):941–948. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.857888 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sullivan JH, Schreuder AB, Trenga CA, Liu SL, Larson TV, Koenig JQ, Kaufman JD (2005) Association between short term exposure to fine particulate matter and heart rate variability in older subjects with and without heart disease. Thorax 60(6):462–466. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2004.027532 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vidal-Petiot E, Ford I, Greenlaw N, Ferrari R, Fox KM, Tardif JC, Tendera M, Tavazzi L, Bhatt DL, Steg PG (2016) Cardiovascular event rates and mortality according to achieved systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with stable coronary artery disease: an international cohort study. Lancet 388(10056):2142–2152. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31326-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar