Management of tannery wastewater for improving growth attributes and reducing chromium uptake in spinach through citric acid application
- 175 Downloads
The use of chromium (Cr)-contaminated tannery wastewater for irrigation is a common practice, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. This practice is due to the shortage of good quality irrigation water for crop growth as well as the issue of tannery wastewater disposal. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of citric acid (CA) (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mM) on the growth and Cr uptake by spinach irrigated with different mixtures of tap water and tannery wastewater (100:0, 50:50, and 0:100 tap water to wastewater ratio). Plants were grown for 8 weeks under ambient conditions. Results showed that 50:50% tap water and wastewater increased plant height, dry weights of shoots and roots, total chlorophyll contents, and gas exchange attributes than the plants treated with only tap water or only wastewater. Increasing wastewater ratio increased electrolyte leakage (EL) in plants and enhanced the leaf key antioxidant enzyme activities as well as increased Cr contents. Foliar application of CA increased the plant dry weights, photosynthesis, and enzyme activities, whereas reduced the EL and Cr concentrations in plants than respective treatments without CA application. It can be concluded that 50:50 tap water and wastewater irrigation along with foliar CA application might be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable growth with reduced metal concentrations.
KeywordsAntioxidants Chromium Oxidative stress Photosynthesis Wastewater irrigation
This work was financed by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan and Government College University of Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Afshan S, Ali S, Bharwana SA, Rizwan M, Farid M, Abbas F, Ibrahim M, Mehmood MA, Abbasi GH (2015) Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of chromium, plant growth, and photosynthesis by alleviating the oxidative damages in Brassica napus L. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(15):11679–11689. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4396-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Akhtar N, Inam A, Inam A, Khan NA (2012) Effects of city wastewater on the characteristics of wheat with varying doses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Recent Res Sci Technol 4:18–29Google Scholar
- Alia N, Sardar K, Said M, Salma K, Sadia A, Sadaf S, Toqeer A, Miklas S (2015) Toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grown in a controlled environment. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12(7):7400–7416. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707400 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, (DC), pp 1–874Google Scholar
- Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1985) Water quality for agriculture, pp. 95-97Google Scholar
- Bouyoucos GJ (1962) Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agron J 54(5):464–465. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1962.00021962005400050028x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Farid M, Ali S, Rizwan M, Ali Q, Abbas F, Bukhari SA, Saeed R, Wu L (2017) Citric acid assisted phytoextraction of chromium by sunflower; morpho-physiological and biochemical alterations in plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 145:90–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gill RA, Zhang N, Ali B, Farooq MA, Xu J, Gill MB, Mao B, Zhou W (2016) Role of exogenous salicylic acid in regulating physio-morphic and molecular changes under chromium toxicity in black-and yellow-seeded Brassica napus L. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(20):20483–20496. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7167-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khalid S, Shahid M, Dumat C, Niazi NK, Bibi I, Gul Bakhat HF, Abbas G, Murtaza B, Javeed HM (2017) Influence of groundwater and wastewater irrigation on lead accumulation in soil and vegetables: implications for health risk assessment and phytoremediation. Int J Phytorem 19(11):1037–1046. https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2017.1319330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khan A, Khan S, Khan MA, Qamar Z, Waqas M (2015) The uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by food plants, their effects on plants nutrients, and associated health risk: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:13772–13799Google Scholar
- Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO (ed) Methods Enzymol 148:350–382, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1
- Page AL, Miller RH, Keeny DR (1982) Methods of soil analysis (Part 2). Chemical andmicrobiological properties. Agron. 9. SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
- US Salinity Laboratory Staff (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agriculture handbook 60. United States Salinity Laboratory, USDA, Washington DC, p 160Google Scholar
- Younis U, Malik SA, Rizwan M, Qayyum MF, Ok YS, Shah MH, Rehman RA, Ahmad N (2016) Biochar enhances the cadmium tolerance in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) through modification of cd uptake and physiological and biochemical attributes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(21):21385–21394. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7344-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang XZ (1992) The measurement and mechanism of lipid peroxidation and SOD, POD and CAT activities in biological system. In: Zhang XZ (ed) Research methodology of crop physiology. Agriculture press, Beijing, pp 208–211Google Scholar