Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 9817–9827 | Cite as

In type 2 diabetes induced by cigarette smoking, activation of p38 MAPK is involved in pancreatic β-cell apoptosis

  • Hui Xu
  • Qiushi Wang
  • Qian Sun
  • Yu Qin
  • Aohan Han
  • Ye Cao
  • Qianlei Yang
  • Ping Yang
  • Jiachun Lu
  • Qizhan Liu
  • Quanyong Xiang
Research Article

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease caused by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Exposure to smoke is a risk factor for diabetes; however, its mechanisms are unclear. In an epidemiological study, we determined the relationship between cigarette smoking and β-cell function. T2D patients had a history of heavier smoking than people without T2D, and heavy smokers had more abnormal glucose metabolism. For various smoking populations, there was a dose-effect relationship between decreases of homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-β levels or the increases of HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) levels and amount of smoking (pack-years), which indicated that smoking induced β-cell dysfunction. For MIN6 cells, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) decreased insulin secretion and content; enhanced apoptosis, as illustrated by decreases of BCL-2 levels, increases of BAX and cleaved caspase-3 levels, and an increased apoptotic index; and activated the p38 MAPK pathway. For MIN6 cells, inhibition of p-p38 MAPK by SB203580 prevented enhanced apoptosis and the dysfunction of insulin secretion induced by CSE. In sum, activation of p38 MAPK is involved in the apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells induced by cigarette smoking, which is a possible mechanism for induction of T2D by cigarette smoke.

Keywords

Cigarette smoke Diabetes mellitus Pancreatic β-cell p38 MAPK Apoptosis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Donald L. Hill (University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA), an experienced, English-speaking scientific editor for editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qiushi Wang
    • 3
  • Qian Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yu Qin
    • 4
  • Aohan Han
    • 3
  • Ye Cao
    • 3
  • Qianlei Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ping Yang
    • 5
  • Jiachun Lu
    • 5
  • Qizhan Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Quanyong Xiang
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Toxicology, School of Public HealthNanjing Medical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of EducationNanjing Medical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Public HealthSoutheast UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Institute of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease ControlJiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and PreventionNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.School of Public Health, Institute for Chemical CarcinogenesisGuangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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