The impact of pesticides on the macroinvertebrate community in the water channels of the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley, North Patagonia (Argentina)
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Agriculture represents the second most important economic activity in the North Patagonian Region of Argentina and non-selective insecticides are still being used with significant implications to the quality of the environment. The range of concentrations (μg/L) determined for azinphosmethyl, chlorpyrifos, and carbaryl in drainage channels were from non-detected to 1.02, 1.45, and 11.21, respectively. Macroinvertebrate abundance and taxon richness in drainage channels were significantly lower in November compared to the other sampling months (October, February). The decrease in taxon richness observed in November was associated with chlorpyrifos and azinphosmethyl peak concentrations. The most remarkable changes were the decrease in sensitive taxa such as Baetidae and the increase in some tolerant taxa such as Chironomidae and Gastropoda.
For all three pesticides, the acute hazard quotient exceeded the risk criteria for invertebrates. The effects of the three pesticides on aquatic organisms, characterized by joint probability curves, showed that the LC50 of 10% of the species were exceeded five and three times by the concentrations of azinphosmethyl and chlorpyrifos during the study period, respectively. However, the correlation between the pesticide concentrations and both taxon richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates at each site (irrigation and drainage channels) was indicative that only chlorpyrifos was negatively correlated with both parameters (Spearman r2 − 0.61, p = 0.0051 and Spearman r2 − 0.59, p = 0.0068 for taxon richness and abundance correlation, respectively). We conclude that macroinvertebrate assemblages in drainage channels were highly affected by chlorpyrifos levels.
KeywordsAgricultural land use Aquatic pollution Insecticides Risk assessment Macroinvertebrates North Patagonia
We would like to thank the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Red Analítica de Latinoamérica y el Caribe (RALACA) for the collaboration and technical support. N. Guiñazú is member of the Research Career of CONICET. B. Lares thanks CONICET for the fellowship granted.
This study was funded by the Universidad Nacional del Comahue.
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