Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10867–10877 | Cite as

Agricultural technologies and carbon emissions: evidence from Jordanian economy

  • Mohanad Ismael
  • Fathi Srouji
  • Mohamed Amine Boutabba
Research Article


Theoretically, agriculture can be the victim and the cause of climate change. Using annual data for the period of 1970–2014, this study examines the interaction between agriculture technology factors and the environment in terms of carbon emissions in Jordan. The results provide evidence for unidirectional causality running from machinery, subsidies, and other transfers, rural access to an improved water source and fertilizers to carbon emissions. The results also reveal the existence of bidirectional causality between the real income and carbon emissions. The variance error decompositions highlight the importance of subsidies and machinery in explaining carbon emissions. They also show that fertilizers, the crop and livestock production, the land under cereal production, the water access, the agricultural value added, and the real income have an increasing effect on carbon emissions over the forecast period. These results are important so that policy-makers can build up strategies and take in considerations the indicators in order to reduce carbon emissions in Jordan.


CO2 emissions Agricultural technologies Improved water source Jordan 

JEL classification

C10 C51 Q16 Q54 



We would like to thank the editor and two anonymous referees whose helpful contributions have improved upon the quality of the paper. Thanks are also due to the participants of the Seconds Meetings on Economic and Quantitative Analysis: Sustainable Development Goals (Hammamet, 2016) for providing comments on earlier drafts of this article. The Financial support by the LABEX MME-DII is also gratefully acknowledged. Errors and omissions, if any, are our own.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsBirzeit UniversityBirzeitState of Palestine
  2. 2.EPEE, Univ Evry, Université Paris-SaclayEvryFrance

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