Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 8, pp 7315–7329 | Cite as

Water treatment by new-generation graphene materials: hope for bright future

  • Imran Ali
  • Omar M. L. Alharbi
  • Alexey Tkachev
  • Evgeny Galunin
  • Alexander Burakov
  • Vladimir A. Grachev
Review Article


Water is the most important and essential component of earth’s ecosystem playing a vital role in the proper functioning of flora and fauna. But, our water resources are contaminating continuously. The whole world may be in great water scarcity after few decades. Graphene, a single-atom thick carbon nanosheet, and graphene nanomaterials have bright future in water treatment technologies due to their extraordinary properties. Only few papers describe the use of these materials in water treatment by adsorption, filtration, and photodegradation methods. This article presents a critical evaluation of the contribution of graphene nanomaterials in water treatment. Attempts have been made to discuss the future perspectives of these materials in water treatment. Besides, the efforts are made to discuss the nanotoxicity and hazards of graphene-based materials. The suggestions are given to explore the full potential of these materials along with precautions of nanotoxicity and its hazards. It was concluded that the future of graphene-based materials is quite bright.


Water treatment Nanotechnology Graphene  nanomaterials Future perspectives Nanotoxicology 


  1. Abdelkader AM, Cooper AJ, Dryfe RAW, Kinloch IA (2015) How to get between the sheets? A review of recent works on the electrochemical exfoliation of graphene materials from bulk graphite. Nano 7:6944–6956Google Scholar
  2. Ahmadi-Moghadam B, Taheri F (2014) Effect of processing parameters on the structure and multi-functional performance of epoxy/GNP-nanocomposites. J Mater Sci 49(18):6180–6190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali I (2010) The quest for active carbon adsorbent substitutes: inexpensive adsorbents for toxic metal ions removal from wastewater. Sep Purif Rev 39(3-4):95–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali I (2012) New generation adsorbents for water treatment. Chem Rev 112(10):5073–5091. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali I (2014) Water treatment by adsorption columns: evaluation at ground level. Sep Purif Rev 43(3):175–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ali I, Aboul-Enein HY (2004) Chiral pollutants: distribution, toxicity and analysis by chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  7. Ali I, Aboul-Enein HY (2006) Instrumental methods in metal ions speciation: chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and electrochemistry. Taylor & Francis Ltd., New York. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ali I, Gupta VK (2006a) Adsorbents for water treatment: development of low-cost alternatives to carbon. In: Encyclopedia of surface and colloid science, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, New York, pp 149–184Google Scholar
  9. Ali I, Gupta VK (2006b) Advances in water treatment by adsorption technology. Nat Protoc 1:2661–2667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ali I, Jain CK (2005) Wastewater treatment and recycling technologies. In: Lehr J (ed) Water encyclopedia: domestic, municipal, and industrial water supply and waste disposal. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Ali I, Aboul-Enein HY, Gupta VK (2009) Nano chromatography and capillary electrophoresis: pharmaceutical and environmental analyses. Wiley & Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  12. Ali I, Khan TA, Asim M (2011) Removal of arsenic from water by electrocoagulation and electrodialysis techniques. Sep Purif Rev 40(1):25–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ali I, Asim M, Khan TA (2012) Low cost adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. J Environ Manag 113:170–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ali I, Alothman ZA, Sanagi MM (2015) Green synthesis of iron nano-impregnated adsorbent for fast removal of fluoride from water. J Mol Liq 211:457–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alsharaeh E, Ahmed F, Aldawsari Y, Khasawneh M, Abuhimd H, Alshahrani M (2016) Novel synthesis of holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) by microwave irradiation method for anode in lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep 6(1):29854. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Arshad A, Iqbal J, Siddiq M, Ali MU, Ali A, Shabbir H, Nazeer UB, Saleem MS (2017) Solar light triggered catalytic performance of graphene-CuO nanocomposite for waste water treatment. Ceram Int 43(14):10654–10660. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Balandin A (2011) Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials. Nat Mater 10(8):569–581. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Banerjee P, Sau S, Das P, Mukhopadhayay A (2015) Optimization and modelling of synthetic azo dye wastewater treatment using graphene oxidenanoplatelets: characterization toxicity evaluation and optimization using artificial neural network. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 119:47–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Banerjee P, Das P, Zaman A, Das P (2016) Application of graphene oxide nanoplatelets for adsorption of ibuprofen from aqueous solutions: evaluation of process kinetics and thermodynamics. Process Saf Environ Prot 101:45–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bayazit ŞS, Yildiz M, Aşçi YS, Şahin M, Bener M, Eğlence S, Salam MA (2017) Rapid adsorptive removal of naphthalene from water using graphene nanoplatelet/MIL-101 (Cr) nanocomposite. J Alloys Compd 701:740–749. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boehm H (2010) Graphene—how a laboratory curiosity suddenly became extremely interesting. Angew Chem Int Ed 49(49):9332–9335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradder P, Ling SK, Wang S, Liu S (2011) Dye adsorption on layered graphite oxide. J Chem Eng Data 56(1):138–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bunch JS, Verbridge SS, Alden JS, van der Zande AM, Parpia JM, Craighead HG, McEuen PL (2008) Impermeable atomic membranes from graphene sheets. Nano Lett 8(8):2458–2462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chowdhury I, Duch MC, Mansukhani ND, Hersam MC, Bouchard D (2013) Colloidal properties and stability of graphene oxide nanomaterials in the aquatic environment. Environ Sci Technol 47(12):6288–6296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chung DDL (2015) A review of exfoliated graphite. J. of Mater Sci 51:554–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Climent-Pascual E, Garcia-Velez M, Álvarez ÁL, Coya C, Munuera C, Diez-Betriu X (2015) Large area graphene and graphene oxide patterning and nanographene fabrication by one-step lithography. Carbon 90:110–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen-Tanugi D, Grossman JC (2012) Water desalination across nanoporous graphene. Nano Lett 12(7):3602–3608. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen-Tanugi D, Grossman JC (2014) Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination. J Chem Phys 141(7):074704. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crock CA, Rogensues AR, Shan W, Tarabara VV (2013) Download: Polymer nanocomposites with graphene-based hierarchical fillers as materials for multifunctional water treatment membranes. Water Res 47(12):3984–3996. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Du H, Li J, Zhang J, Su G, Li X, Zhao Y (2011) Separation of hydrogen and nitrogen gases with porous graphene membrane. J Phys Chem C 115(47):23261–23266. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dyson T (1996) Population and food: global trends and future prospects. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Ema M, Gamo M, Honda K (2017) A review of toxicity studies on graphene-based nanomaterials in laboratory animals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 85:7–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fauré J, Lachenal G, Court M, Hirrlinger J, Chatellard-Causse C, Blot B, Grange J, Schoehn G, Goldberg Y, Boyer V, Kirchhoff F, Raposo G, Garin J, Sadoul R (2006) Exosomes are released by cultured cortical neurones. Mol Cell Neurosci 31(4):642–648. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Filice S, Angelo DD, Libertino S, Nicotera I, Kosma V, Privitera V, Scalese S (2015) Graphene oxide and titania hybrid Nafion membranes for efficient removal of methyl orange dye from water. Carbon 82:489–499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gatti AM (2005) Nanotoxicity and health risk related to managing nanoparticles the European experience of nanopathology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Laboratory of BiomaterialsGoogle Scholar
  36. Geim AK (2009) Graphene: status and prospects. Science 324(5934):1530–1534. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goh PS, Ismail AF, Ng BC (2013) Carbon nanotubes for desalination: performance evaluation and current hurdles. Desalination 308:2–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goswami S, Banerjee P, Datta S, Mukhopadhayay A, Das P (2017) Graphene oxide nanoplatelets synthesized with carbonized agro-waste biomass as green precursor and its application for the treatment of dye rich wastewater. Process Saf Environ Prot 106:163–172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guardia L, Villar-Rodil S, Paredes JI (2012) UV light exposure of aqueous graphene oxide suspensions to promote their direct reduction, formation of graphene–metal nanoparticle hybrids and dye degradation. Carbon 50(3):1014–1024. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guo X, Mei N (2014) Assessment of the toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials. J Food Drugs Anal 22(1):105–115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hashimoto A, Suenaga K, Gloter A, Urita K, Iijima S (2004) Direct evidence for atomic defects in graphene layers. Nature 430(7002):870–873. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoet PHM, Brüske-Hohlfeld I, Salata OV (2004) Nanoparticles—known and unknown health risks. J Nanobiotechnol 2(12):12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hu M, Mi B (2013) Enabling graphene oxide nanosheets as water separation membranes. Environ Sci Technol 47(8):3715–3723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huang JH, Liu YF, Jin QZ, Wang XG, Yang J (2007) Adsorption studies of a water soluble dye, reactive red MF-3B, using sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay. J Hazard Mater 143(1-2):541–548. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ion AC, Alpatova A, Ion I, Culetu A (2011a) Study on phenol adsorption in aqueous solution on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets. Mater Sci Eng B 176(7):588–595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ion AC, Ion I, Culetu A (2011b) Lead adsorption onto exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in aqueous solutions. Mater Sci Eng B 176(6):504–509. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ji L, Chen W, Duan L, Zhu D (2009) Mechanisms for strong adsorption of tetracycline to carbon nanotubes: a comparative study using activated carbon and graphite as adsorbent. Environ Sci Technol 43(7):2322–2327. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jiang D, Cooper VR, Dai S (2009) Porous graphene as the ultimate membrane for gas separation. Nano Lett 9(12):4019–4024. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jin Z, Wang X, Sun Y, Ai Y, Wang X (2015) Adsorption of 4-n-nonylphenol and bisphenol-A on magnetic reduced graphene oxides: a combined experimental and theoretical studies. Environ Sci Technol 49(15):9168–9175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan TA, Sharma S, Ali I (2011) Adsorption of rhodamine B dye from aqueous solution onto acid activated mango (Magnifera indica) leaf powder: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci 3:286–297Google Scholar
  51. Khan A, Wang J, Li J, Wang X, Chen Z, Alsaedi A, Hayat T, Chen Y (2017) The role of graphene oxide and graphene oxide-based nanomaterials in the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous media: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(9):7938–7958. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kim S, Marion M, Jeong BH, Hoek EMV (2006) Crossflow membrane filtration of interacting nanoparticle suspensions. J Membr Sci 284(1-2):361–372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laws EA (2000) Aquatic pollution: an introductory text, 3rd edn. Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee C, Wei X, Kysar JW, Hone J (2008) Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science 321(5887):385–388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lee J, Chae HR, Won YJ, Lee K, Lee CH, Lee HH, Kim I-C, Lee JM (2013) Graphene oxide nanoplatelets composite membrane with hydrophilic and antifouling properties for wastewater treatment. J Membr Sci 448:223–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leenaerts O, Partoens B, Peeters FM (2008) Graphene: a perfect nanoballoon. Appl Phys Lett 93(19):193107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leslie-Pelecky DL, Rieke RD (1996) Magnetic properties of nanostructured materials. Chem Mater 8(8):1770–1783. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Li C, Dong Y, Yang J, Li Y, Huang C (2014) Modified nano-graphite/Fe3O4 composite as efficient adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution. J Mol Liq 196:348–356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lin Y, Zhiming Z, George T, Simon P, Li D (2015) Scalable production of graphene via wet chemistry: progress and challenges. Mater Today 18:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Liu T, Li Y, Du Q, Sun J, Jiao Y, Yang G, Wang Z, Xia Y, Zhang W, Wang K, Wu D (2012) Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by grapheme. Colloids Surf B. 90:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu SZ, Sun HQ, Liu SM, Wang SB (2013) Graphene facilitated visible light photodegradation of methylene blue over titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Chem Eng J 214:298–303. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lotya M, Hernandez Y, King PJ, Smith RJ, Nicolosi V, Karlsson LS, Blighe FM, De S, Wang Z, McGovern IT, Duesberg GS, Coleman JN (2009) Liquid phase production of graphene by exfoliation of graphite in surfactant/water solutions. J Am Chem Soc 131(10):3611–3620. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lu Q, Huang R (2009) Nonlinear mechanics of single-atomic layer graphene sheets. Int J Appl Mech 1(03):443–467. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mahmoud KA, Mansoor B, Mansour A, Khraisheh M (2015) Functional graphene nanosheets: the next generation membranes for water desalination. Desalination 356:208–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Malinauskas A, Ruzgas T, Gorton L (2000) Electrochemical study of the redox dyes nile blue and toluidine blue adsorbed on graphite and zirconium phosphate modified graphite. J Electroanal Chem 484(1):55–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maliyekkal SM, Sreeprasad TS, Krishnan D, Kouser S, Mishra AK, Waghmare UV, Pradeep T (2013) Graphene: a reusable substrate for unprecedented adsorption of pesticides. Small 9(2):273–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Manafi MR, Manafi P, Agarwal S, Bharti AK, Asif M, Gupta VK (2017) Synthesis of nanocomposites from polyacrylamide and graphene oxide: application as flocculants for water purification. J Colloid Interface Sci 490:505–510. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Manawi Y, Kochkodan V, Hussein MA, Khaleel MA, Khraisheh M, Hilal N (2016) Can carbon-based nanomaterials revolutionize membrane fabrication for water treatment and desalination. Desalination 391:69–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McDonogh RM, Fell CJD, Fane AG (1984) Surface charge and permeability in the ultrafiltration of non-flocculating colloids. J Membr Sci 21(3):285–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Melezhyk AV, Tkachev AG (2014) Synthesis of graphene nanoplatelets from peroxosulfate graphite intercalation compounds. Nanosyst Phys Chem Math 5:294–306Google Scholar
  71. Mi B (2014) Graphene oxide membranes for ionic and molecular sieving. Science 343(6172):740–742. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mishra AK, Ramaprabhu S (2011) Removal of metals from aqueous solution and sea water by functionalized graphite nanoplatelets based electrodes. J Hazard Mater 185(1):322–328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moeser GD, Roach KA, Green WH, Hatton TA (2004) High gradient magnetic separation of coated magnetic nanoparticles. AICHE J 50(11):2835–2848. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nel A, Xia T, Madler L, Li N (2006) Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science 311(5761):622–627. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nemerow N, Dasgupta A (1991) Industrial and hazardous waste treatment. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Nidheesh PV (2017) Graphene-based materials supported advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(35):27047–27069. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306(5696):666–669. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Hern SC, Boutilier MSH, Idrobo JC, Song Y, Kong J, Laoui T, Atieh M, Karnik R (2014) Selective ionic transport through tunable subnanometer pores in single-layer graphene membranes. Nano Lett 14(3):1234–1241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ou L, Song B, Liang H, Liu J, Feng X, Deng B, Sun T, Shao L (2016) Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms. Part Fibre Toxicol 13(1):57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pavaghadi S, Tang AIL, Sathishkumar M, Loh KP, Balasubramanian R (2013) Removal of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR by graphene oxide: adsorption and kinetic experiments. Water Res 47(13):4621–4629. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Perreault F, Tousley ME, Elimelech M (2013) Thin film composite polyamide membranes functionalized with biocidal graphene oxide nanosheets. Environ Sci Technol Lett 1:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pomoell JAV, Krasheninnikov AV, Nordlund K, Keinonen J (2004) Ion ranges and irradiation-induced defects in multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J Appl Phys 96(5):2864–2871. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pu NW, Wang CA, Liu YM, Sung Y, Wang DS, Ger MD (2012) Dispersion of graphene in aqueous solutions with different types of surfactants and the production of graphene films by spray or drop coating. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 43:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Radu E, Ion AC, Sirbu F, Ion I (2015) Adsorption of endocrine disruptors on exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets. Environ Eng Manag J 14:551–558Google Scholar
  85. Ren X, Li J, Tan X, Shi W, Chen C, Shao D, Wen T, Wang L, Zhao G, Sheng G, Wang X (2014) Impact of Al2O3 on the aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide. Environ Sci Technol 48(10):5493–5500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Riaz MA, McKay G, Saleem J (2017) 3D graphene-based nanostructured materials as sorbents for cleaning oil spills and for the removal of dyes and miscellaneous pollutants present in water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(36):27731–27745. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ruan M, Hu Y, Guo Z, Dong R, Palmer J, Hankinson J, Berger C, de Heer WA (2012) Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: introduction to structured graphene. MRS Bull 37(12):1138–1147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sanchez VC, Jachak A, Hurt RH, Kane AB (2012) Biological interactions of graphene-family nanomaterials: an interdisciplinary review. Chem Res Toxicol 25(1):15–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schinwald A, Murphy FA, Jones A, Mac Nee W, Donaldson K (2012) Graphene-based nanoplatelets: a new risk to the respiratory system as a consequence of their unusual aerodynamic properties. ACS Nano 6(1):736–746. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schmidt-Ott A, Butselaar-Orthlieb V, van Winsen J, Bosma D (2010) Nanosafety guidelines: preventing exposure to nanomaterials at the faculty of applied sciences, Delft University of Technology, workgroup Nanosafety of the Faculty of Applied Sciences, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  91. Seabra AB, Paula AJ, de Lima R, Alves OL, Durán N (2014) Nanotoxicity of graphene and graphene oxide. Chem Res Toxicol 27(2):159–168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Segal M (2009) Selling grapheme by the ton. Nat Nanotechnol 4(10):612–614. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sheng KX, Xu YX, Li C, Shi GQ (2011) High-performance self-assembled graphene hydrogels prepared by chemical reduction of graphene oxide. New Carbon Mater 26(1):9–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shih CJ, Lin S, Sharma R, Strano MS, Blankschtein D (2012) Understanding the pH-dependent behavior of graphene oxide aqueous solutions: a comparative experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study. Langmuir 28(1):235–241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sint K, Wang B, Král P (2008) Selective ion passage through functionalized grapheme nanopores. J Am Chem Soc 130(49):16448–16449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Song W, Yang T, Wang X, Sun Y, Ai Y, Sheng G, Hayat T, Wang X (2016) Experimental and theoretical evidence for competitive interactions of tetracycline and sulfamethazine with reduced graphene oxides. Environ Sci Nanotechnol 3(6):1318–1326. Google Scholar
  97. Storm MM, Overgaard M, Younesi R, Reeler NE, Vosch T, Nielsen UG, Edstrom K, Norby P (2015) Reduced graphene oxide for Li–air batteries: the effect of oxidation time and reduction conditions for graphene oxide. Carbon 85:233–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Suk ME, Aluru N (2010) Water transport through ultrathin graphene. J Phys Chem Lett 1(10):1590–1594. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sun SJ, Chang CP (2008) Ballistic transport in bilayer nano-graphite ribbons under gate and magnetic fields. Eur Phys J B 64(2):249–255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sun P, Zhu M, Wang K, Zhong M, Wei J, Wu D, Xu Z, Zhu H (2012a) Selective ion penetration of graphene oxide membranes. ACS Nano 7:428–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sun Y, Wang Q, Chen C, Tan X, Wang X (2012b) Interaction between Eu(III) and graphene oxide nanosheets investigated by batch and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and by modeling techniques. Environ Sci Technol 46(11):6020–6027. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sun Y, Shao D, Chen C, Yang S, Wang X (2013a) Highly efficient enrichment of radionuclides on graphene oxide-supported polyaniline. Environ Sci Technol 47(17):9904–9910. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sun Y, Yang S, Zhao G, Wang Q, Wang X (2013b) Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on graphene oxides and reduced graphene oxides. Chem Asian J 8(11):2755–2761. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sun Y, Yang S, Chen Y, Ding C, Cheng W, Wang X (2015) Adsorption and desorption of U(VI) on functionalized graphene oxides: a combined experimental and theoretical study. Environ Sci Technol 49(7):4255–4262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sun Y, Lu S, Wang X, Xu C, Li J, Chen C, Chen J, Hayat T, Alsaedi A, Alharbi NS, Wang X (2017) Plasma-facilitated synthesis of amidoxime/carbon nanofiber hybrids for effective enrichment of 238U(VI) and 241Am(III). Environ Sci Technol 49:12274–12282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tchobanoglous G, Franklin LB (1991) Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal and reuse. McGraw Hill, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. Vettorazzi G (1979) International regulatory aspects for pesticide chemicals, vol. 1. CRC Press Inc, p 14Google Scholar
  108. Wang B, Král P (2007) Optimal atomistic modifications of material surfaces: design of selective nesting sites for biomolecules. Small 3(4):580–584. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wang Z, Yu H, Xia J, Zhang F, Li F, Xia Y, Li Y (2012) Novel GO-blended PVDF ultrafiltration membranes. Desalination 299:50–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wang S, Sun H, Ang HM, Tade MO (2013) Adsorption remediation of environmental pollutants using novel graphene-based nanomaterials. Chem Eng J 226:336–347. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Weber B, Holz F (1991) Landfill leachates treatment by reverse osmosis. In: Turner MK (ed) Effective industrial membrane processes: benefits and opportunities. Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., Barking EssexGoogle Scholar
  112. Wei D, Liu Y, Wang Y, Zhang H, Huang L, Yu G (2009) Synthesis of N-doped graphene by chemical vapor deposition and its electrical properties. Nano Lett 9(5):1752–1758. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Williams AR (1991) The use of reverse osmosis for the purification of coal gasification liquors. In: Turner MK (ed) Effective industrial membrane processes: benefits and opportunities. Elsevier science Publishers Ltd., Barking EssexGoogle Scholar
  114. Wu Z, Zhong H, Yuan X, Wang H, Wang L, Chen X, Zeng G, Wu Y (2014) Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by rhamnolipid-functionalized graphene oxide from wastewater. Water Res 67:330–344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Xinhong G, Ying T, Wenjie R, Jun M, Christie P, Yongming L (2017) Optimization of ex-situ washing removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a contaminated soil using nano-sulfonated graphene. Pedosphere 27:527–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Xu Z, Gao C (2011) Graphene chiral liquid crystals and macroscopic assembled fibres. Nat Commun 2:571. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Xu J, Wang L, Zhu Y (2012) Decontamination of bisphenol A from aqueous solution by graphene adsorption. Langmuir 28(22):8418–8425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yang J, Gunasekaran S (2013) Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide sheets for use in high performance supercapacitors. Carbon 51:6–44Google Scholar
  119. Yu L, Zhang Y, Zhang B, Liu J, Zhang H, Song C (2013) Preparation and characterization of HPEI-GO/PES ultrafiltration membrane with antifouling and antibacterial properties. J Membr Sci 447:452–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yu S, Wang X, Ai Y, Tan X, Hayat T, Hu W, Wang X (2016) Experimental and theoretical studies on competitive adsorption of aromatic compounds on reduced graphene oxides. J Mater Chem 4(15):5654–5662. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yu S, Wang X, Yao W, Wang J, Ji Y, Ai Y, Alsaedi A, Hayat T, Wang X (2017) Macroscopic, spectroscopic, and theoretical investigation for the interaction of phenol and naphthol on reduced graphene oxide. Environ Sci Technol 51(6):3278–3286. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zaib Q, Fath H (2012) Application of carbon nano-materials in desalination processes. Desalin Water Treat 51:627–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhang J, Zou H, Qing Q, Yang Y, Li Q, Liu Z, Guo X, Du Z (2003) Effect of chemical oxidation on the structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B 107(16):3712–3718. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhang J, Xu Z, Shan M, Zhou B, Li Y, Li B, Niu J, Qian X (2013) Synergetic effects of oxidized carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide on fouling control and anti-fouling mechanism of polyvinylidene fluoride ultrafiltration membranes. J Membr Sci 448:81–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhao G, Li J, Ren X, Chen C, Wang X (2011a) Few-layered graphene oxide nanosheets as superior sorbents for heavy metal ion pollution management. Environ Sci Technol 45(24):10454–10462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zhao G, Li J, Wang X (2011b) Kinetic and thermodynamic study of 1-naphthol adsorption from aqueous solution to sulfonated graphene nanosheets. Chem Eng J 173:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhao G, Jiang L, He Y, Li J, Dong H, Wang X, Hu W (2011c) Sulfonated graphene for persistent aromatic pollutant management. Adv Mater 23(34):3959–3963. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhu Y, Murali S, Cai W, Li X, Suk JW, Potts JR, Ruoff RS (2010) Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv Mater 22(35):3906–3924. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhu J, Sadu R, Wei S, Chen DH, Haldolaarachchige N, Luo Z, Gomes JA, Young DP, Guo Z (2012) Magnetic graphene nanoplatelet composites toward arsenic removal. ECS J Solid State Sci Technol 1:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Imran Ali
    • 1
    • 2
  • Omar M. L. Alharbi
    • 3
  • Alexey Tkachev
    • 4
  • Evgeny Galunin
    • 4
  • Alexander Burakov
    • 4
  • Vladimir A. Grachev
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesTaibah UniversityMedina Al-MunawaraSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Biology Department, Faculty of SciencesTaibah UniversityMedina Al-MunawaraSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Technology and Methods of Nanoproducts ManufacturingTambov State Technical UniversityTambovRussian Federation
  5. 5.A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and ElectrochemistryRussian Academy of Sciences (RAS)MoscowRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations