Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10837–10847 | Cite as

Acute and single repeated dose effects of low concentrations of chlorpyrifos, diuron, and their combination on chicken

  • Yasser EL-Nahhal
  • Raed Lubbad
Research Article


This study investigated the acute and single repeated dose effects of low concentrations of chlorpyrifos, diuron, and their mixture to chicken. The effects were determined as biological response (chicken behavior); physiological response (body weight, gaining weight); and biochemical response such as reduction of acetylcholine esterase activity (ACHE), changes in liver biomarkers, such as (1) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), (2) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and (3) alanine aminotransferase (ALP), and effects on kidney biomarkers such as total protein, creatinine, uric acid, and urea. Results showed abnormal behavior on chicken received 5 μg/g and above from the tested compounds. A reduction in growth weight was observed in chicken received a single repeated dose of diuron and mixture. Enlargements in the liver and heart were observed in chicken received a single repeated dose of diuron. Percentage of serum ACHE inhibition increased linearly as the concentration of the tested compounds increased. The tested low concentration showed tremendous effects on liver enzymes and kidney functions. Similarly, a single repeated dose of the tested compounds caused severe inhibition on serum ACHE and affected the liver enzyme activities and kidney functions. It can be concluded that the low concentrations are not safe and may cause severe damage to the liver, heart, or kidney and disturb the life.


Acute and single repeated dose Low concentration Chlorpyrifos Diuron mixture toxicity ACHE activity 



Prof. Dr. El-Nahhal would like to thank AVH Foundation for the last research stay in Berlin, Germany.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Earth Sciences, Faculty of ScienceIslamic University-GazaGaza StripPalestine

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