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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10997–11010 | Cite as

Geochemistry of rare earth elements within waste rocks from the Montviel carbonatite deposit, Québec, Canada

  • Mohamed Edahbi
  • Benoît Plante
  • Mostafa Benzaazoua
  • Mia Pelletier
Research Article

Abstract

Several rare earth element (REE) mine projects around the world are currently at the feasibility stage. Unfortunately, few studies have evaluated the contamination potential of REE and their effects on the environment. In this project, the waste rocks from the carbonatites within the Montviel proterozoic alkaline intrusion (near Lebel-sur-Quévillon, Quebec, Canada) are assessed in this research. The mineralization is mainly constituted by light REE (LREE) fluorocarbonates (qaqarssukite-Ce, kukharenkoite-Ce), LREE carbonates (burbankite, Sr-Ba-Ca-REE, barytocalcite, strontianite, Ba-REE-carbonates), and phosphates (apatite, monazite). The gangue minerals are biotites, chlorite, albite, ankerite, siderite, and calcite. The SEM-EDS analyses show that (i) the majority of REE are associated with the fine fraction (< 106 μm), (ii) REE are mainly associated with carbonates, (iii) all analyzed minerals preferably contain LREE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu), (iv) the sum of LREE in each analyzed mineral varies between ~ 3 and 10 wt%, (v) the heavy REE (HREE) identified are Gd and Yb at < 0.4 wt%, and (vi) three groups of carbonate minerals were observed containing variable concentrations of Ca, Na, and F. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of REE-bearing minerals, REE mobility, and REE speciation was investigated. The leachability and geochemical behavior of these REE-bearing mine wastes were tested using normalized kinetic testing (humidity cells). Leachate results displayed higher LREE concentrations, with decreasing shale-normalized patterns. Thermodynamical equilibrium calculations suggest that the precipitation of secondary REE minerals may control the REE mobility.

Keywords

Montviel carbonatites (Quebec, Canada) Rare earth elements (REE) Mineralogical characterization Geochemical behavior Speciation Humidity cells Modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the URSTM staff for their support with laboratory work and NSERC/Geomega Resources for funding of this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Edahbi
    • 1
  • Benoît Plante
    • 1
  • Mostafa Benzaazoua
    • 1
  • Mia Pelletier
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute on Mines and Environment (RIME)Université du Québec en Abitibi-TémiscamingueRouyn-NorandaCanada
  2. 2.Ressources GéomégaSt-LambertCanada

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