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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10730–10739 | Cite as

Ecotoxicity of the nonsteroidal ecdysone mimic RH-5849 to Daphnia magna

  • Jinlin Jiang
  • Zhengjun Shan
  • Xiaorong Wang
  • Yuxuan Zhu
  • Junying Zhou
Research Article

Abstract

The nonsteroidal ecdysone mimic 1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine (RH-5849), a novel insect growth regulator, is mainly registered for use in rice fields. So far, its toxicity and ecological risks towards aquatic cladoceran invertebrates remain unclear. In this study, RH-5849 was evaluated for its acute and 21-day chronic toxicity towards Daphnia magna. The viability, morphology, growth, and reproduction of D. magna were observed to establish a concentration-toxicity relationship associated with the RH-5849 exposure. In addition, the relationship between the changes of physiological and biochemical indices and the chronic indices was analyzed in order to find potential early warning indicators in D. magna to the chronic risk of RH-5849 exposure. The results showed that the 48-h EC50 of acute immobilization and EC50 of 21-day survival of RH-5849 on D. magna were 45.3 and 1.34 mg/L, respectively. Chronic exposure to RH-5849 mainly affected the reproductive parameters of D. magna and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and the EC50 were 0.050 and 0.5423 mg/L, respectively. The number of offspring per female reduced significantly after 21-day exposure to 0.10 mg/L of RH-5849. The morphological changes, manifested in head width and body length, the length of the helmet or apical spine, and the curvature and transparency of the body, were observed in RH-5849-treated groups. Moreover, it was found that the alkaline phosphatase activity in D. magna after 5–7-day exposure was positively correlated with the number of offspring per female after 21 days. These results indicate the potential risk of RH-5849 towards aquatic crustaceans should be taken into consideration when applied to rice fields.

Keywords

RH-5849 Daphnia magna Chronic toxicity Growth Reproduction 

Notes

Funding information

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant number 21407056).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1275_Fig8_ESM.jpg (9 kb)
Figure S1

Mean survival time of Daphnia magna under different RH-5849 concentrations during the 21-day experiment. Data are denoted as mean ± standard deviation. No asterisk indicates there was no statistically significant difference in the treatment relative to control. (JPEG 8 kb)

11356_2018_1275_MOESM1_ESM.tif (610 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 609 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinlin Jiang
    • 1
  • Zhengjun Shan
    • 1
  • Xiaorong Wang
    • 2
  • Yuxuan Zhu
    • 1
  • Junying Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences/Key Laboratory of Pesticide Environmental Assessment and Pollution ControlMinistry of Environmental ProtectionNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of the EnvironmentNanjing UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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