Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10688–10700 | Cite as

Analysis and utilization of temple waste flowers in Coimbatore District

  • Gomathi Elango
  • Rathika Govindasamy
Research Article
  • 65 Downloads

Abstract

The present work deals with collection, handling, utilization, and management of the waste flowers that are coming out of the temples in Coimbatore District, Tamilnadu, India. An attempt has been made to provide a current situation and complete analysis of temple waste flowers (TWFs) with suggestions and recommendations. As a part of Clean India, Clean and Green Kovai (Green Coimbatore) mission, this paper gives an idea to reduce the volume of temple waste flowers by converting into activated carbon by direct pyrolysis process and chemical activation with sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid process, respectively. The products were analyzed and compared based on the results of physicochemical parameters including pH, conductivity, moisture content, ash content, volatile content, fixed carbon, bulk density, porosity, specific gravity, water soluble matter, acid soluble matter, iodine number, methylene blue number, yield, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (SBET) surface area. The structure, surface morphology, and chemical compositions of carbon were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. From the comparison of results, the activated carbon produced from temple waste flowers by direct pyrolysis process is fairly better due to low moisture content, low ash content, better yield, and higher surface area.

Keywords

Temple waste flowers Activated carbon Physicochemical parameters BET SEM EDS Suggestions and recommendations 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the authorities of Jansons Institute of Technology for providing necessary facilities to carry out this research work successfully. The authors gratefully acknowledge the South India Textile Research Association (SITRA) for FeSEM-EDS. Also, we thank KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode, for help in BET analysis.

References

  1. Abiko H (2011) Water vapor adsorption and desorption isotherms of activated carbon products used in Japanese gas respirators. Tanso 248:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal S (2011) Report on demonstration of renewable energy system at Shri Mahakaleshwar Temple Complex in Ujjain, Ministry of new and renewable energy, New Delhi, pp1–4Google Scholar
  3. Ahmedna M, Marshall WE, Rao RM (2000) Granular activated carbons from agricultural by-products: preparation properties and application in cane sugar refining. Bull Louisana state Univ Agric centre, 54Google Scholar
  4. American Society for Testing Materials (1980) Standard test method for determination of iodine number of activated carbon, ASTM, ppD4607–94Google Scholar
  5. American Water Works Association (1991) Standards for granular activated carbons, American Water Works Association. Denver Co., ANSI/AWWA, ppB604–90Google Scholar
  6. Ansari R, Mosayebzadeh Z (2010) Removal of basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions using sawdust and sawdust coated with polypyrrole. J Iran Chem Soc 7(2):339–350.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03246019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anvitha V, Sushmitha MB, Rajeev RB, Mathew BB (2015) The importance, extraction and usage of some floral wastes. J Biotechnol Bioinform Bioeng 2(1):1–6Google Scholar
  8. Arian DS, Asce JHB, Arian L, Mcmurray TD (1980) Hospital solid waste management: a case study. J Environ Eng Div 106(EE4):741–753Google Scholar
  9. Balakrishnan M, Satyawali Y (2007) Removal of color from biomethanated distillery spentwash by treatment with activated carbons. Bioresour Technol 98:2629–2635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bansal R, Donnet J, Stoeckli F (1988) Active carbon. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 1–163Google Scholar
  11. Brunauer S, Emmett PH, Teller E (1938) Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J Am Chem Soc 60(2):309–319.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01269a023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Budavari S (1996) Merck index. Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, p 1316Google Scholar
  13. Dong J, Rotich KH, Zhao Y (2005) Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries—Kenyan case study, Changchun, pp92–100Google Scholar
  14. Elisabeth S, Klaus T, Christine W, Andreas H, Vander T (2007) Experiments on the generation of activated carbon from biomass. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 79:106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eren E, Gok E c, Seyhan B n, Maslakci N n, Oksuz A u (2015) Evaluation of anthocyanin, a rose residue extract for use in dye-sensitized solar cell. Asian J Chem 27(10):3745–3748.  https://doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2015.18950 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaurav MV, Pathade GR (2011) Production of vermicompost from temple waste (Nirmalya): a case study. Univers J Environ Res Technol 1(2):182–192Google Scholar
  17. Goldman G, Ogishi A (2001) The economic impact of waste disposal and diversion in California, Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, pp1–8Google Scholar
  18. Hauge SM, Willaman JJ (1927) Effect of pH on adsorption by carbons. Ind J Eng Chem 19(8):943–953.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50212a031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jadhav AR, Chitanand MP, Shete HG (2013) Flower waste degradation using microbial consortium. J Agric For 3(5):1–4Google Scholar
  20. Khadija Q, Inamullah B, Rafique K, Abdul KA (2008) Physical chemical analysis of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagasse and use for sugar decolorisatoin. Int J Chem Biomol Eng 1(3):145–149Google Scholar
  21. Khan MA, Rehman SU (2005) Extraction and analysis of essential oil of rose species. Int J Agric Biol 7(6):973–974Google Scholar
  22. Kimenju SC, De Groote H (2008) Consumer willingness to pay for genetically modified food in Kenya. Agric Econ 28(8):35–46Google Scholar
  23. Kumar MS, Swapanavahini K (2012) Nutrient reduction and biogas production of rose residues by anaerobic digestion in a batch reactor. Int J Adv Res Sci Technol 1(2):125–129Google Scholar
  24. Makhanial M, Upadhyay A (2015) Study of flower waste composting to generate organic nutrient. Int J Innov Emerg Res Eng 2(1):145–149Google Scholar
  25. Malarvizhi M, Sulochana N (2008) Sorption isotherm and kinetic studies of methylene blue uptake onto activated carbon prepared from wood apple shell. J Environ Sci 2:40–46Google Scholar
  26. Nakagawa K, Mukai SR, Suzuki T, Tamon H (2003) Gas adsorption on activated carbons from PET mixtures with a metal salt. Carbon 41(4):823–831.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(02)00404-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Okieimen FE, Okiemen CO, Wuana RA (2007) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rice husks. J Chem Soc 32:126–136Google Scholar
  28. Perumal K, Moorthy TA, Savitha JS (2012) Characterization of essential oil from offered temple flowers Rosa damascene Mill. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 3(2):330–334Google Scholar
  29. Prahas D, Kartika Y, Indraswati N, Ismadji S (2008) The use of activated carbon prepared from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel waste for methylene blue removal. J Environ 2:1–10Google Scholar
  30. Ranjitha J, Vijayalakshmi S, Vijaya KP, Ralph NP (2014) Production of bio-gas from flowers and vegetable wastes using anaerobic digestion. Int J Res Eng Technol 3(8):279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ravishankar R, Raju AB, Abdul BM, Mohpatra AK, Kumar M (2014) Extraction of useful products from temple flower wastes. J Chem Eng Res 2(1):231–239Google Scholar
  32. Rengaraj S, Seung-Hyeon M, Sivabalm S (2002) Agricultural solid waste for the removal of organics: adsorption of phenol from water and wastewater by palm seed coat activated carbon. Waste Manag 22:543–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rutala AW, Mayhall G (1980) Infection control hospital epidemiology. Med Waste 13(1):38–48Google Scholar
  34. Sailaja D, Srilakshmi P, Shehanaaz PH, Bharathi DL, Begum A (2013) Prepration of vermicompost from temple waste flowers. Int J Sci Inno Discov 3(3):367–375Google Scholar
  35. Shouche S, Pandey A, Bhati P (2011) Study about the changes in physical parameters during vermicomposting of floral wastes. J Environ Res 6(1):63–68Google Scholar
  36. Siluvai C, Aneeshia K (2014) Fungal degradation of dry flower industrial waste and evaluation of dye level by HPLC. J Microbiol Biotechnol Res 4(3):40–50Google Scholar
  37. Singh P, Bajpai U (2012) Anaerobic digestion of flower waste for methane production: an alternative energy source. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 31(4):637–641.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.10589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Singh, Akanksha, Akansha Jain, Birinchi K, Sarma, Abhilash PC, Harikesh B Singh (2013) Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. Elsevier 33: 1113–1118Google Scholar
  39. Singh P, Borthakur A, Singh R, Awasthi S, Pal DB, Srivastava P, Tiwary D, Mishra PK (2017) Utilization of temple floral waste for extraction of valuable products: a close loop approach towards environmental sustainability and waste management. Pollution 3(1):39–45Google Scholar
  40. Slavov A, Kyiohara H, Yamada H (2013) Immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides from waste rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Int J Biol Macromol 59:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Slavov A, Denev P, Panchev I, Shikov V, Nenov N, Yantcheva N, Vasileva I (2017a) Combined recovery of polysaccharides and polyphenols from Rosa damascena wastes. Ind Crop Prod 100:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Slavov A, Vasileva I, Stefanov L, Stoyanova A (2017b) Valorization of wastes from the rose oil industry. Rev Environ Sci Bio 16(2):309–325.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-017-9430-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smisek M, Cerney S (1970) Active carbon: manufacture, properties and applications, Elsevier Pub Co, pp562–563Google Scholar
  44. Teli MD, Valia SP, Kolambkar D (2013) Flower waste from temple for dyeing of cotton and cotton/silk. J Textile Assoc 74(4):210–214Google Scholar
  45. The Expert Committee (2000) Manual on municipal solid waste management, The Ministry of Urban Development. Government India 1(2):789Google Scholar
  46. Tiwari P (2014) Utilization and management of floral waste generated in popular temples of Jaipur City. The IIS University, JaipurGoogle Scholar
  47. Toles CA, Marshall WE, John MM (1998) Phosphoric acid activation of nutshells for metal and organic remediation: process optimization. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 72(3):255–263.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199807)72:3<255::AID-JCTB890>3.0.CO;2-P CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vankar PS, Sanker R, Wijayapala S (2009) Utilization of temple waste flower-Tagetus erecta for dyeing of cotton, wool, silk on industrial scale. J Textile Apparel Technol Manage 6(1):1–15Google Scholar
  49. Waghmode MS, Gunjal AB, Nawani NN, Pati NN (2016) Management of floral wastes by conversion to value-added products and their other applications, Waste biomass valorization, pp1–11Google Scholar
  50. Williams PT, Reed AR (2006) Development of activated carbon pore structure via physical and chemical activation of biomass fibre waste. Biomass Bioenergy 30(2):144–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yantcheva NS, Vasileva IN, Denev PN, Lutova PV, Mitov SE, Iordanova ZA, Galabova MA, Panchev IN, Slavov AM (2017) Valorization of waste of Calendula officinalis—obtaining of ethanol extracts. Bulg Chem Commun 49:21–25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryJansons Institute of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPSG College of Arts and ScienceCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations