Heath risk among pesticide sellers in Bamenda (Cameroon) and peripheral areas
- 81 Downloads
In Bamenda and peripheral zones, studies have been focused on the effects of pesticides on farmers (pesticide users) while nothing has been done to assess the exposure of sellers to pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the exposure of pesticide sellers in the same area. Thirty-two questionnaires were administered to 32 pesticide sellers systematically selected, and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. From each shop, a respondent was chosen among the workers according to its daily time spent in the workplace. The results showed that there is similarity between sellers in Bamenda and peripheral area; one active ingredient (metalaxyl) and one formulation (beauchamp) sold are not registered; throat irritation, headaches, fatigue, skin irritation, eye irritation, and difficulty in breathing with more cases of nose irritation were symptoms observed; pesticides are stored either in the shops or in warehouses; safety measures generally applied are sitting outside the shop, taking medicated charcoal and the use of protective clothing; 56% have less than 5 years experience. Permanent pesticide sellers are then exposed to chronic intoxication in Bamenda and neighboring zones. Employers should make use of protective clothing in their shops when manipulating pesticides in the application of safety measures.
KeywordsPesticide sellers Agrochemical shops Signs/symptoms Exposure
The authors sincerely thank all the pesticide sellers who willingly participated in the collection of data for this study.
Sonchieu Jean, senior lecturer and corresponding author, supervised and coordinated the collection of data. Nantia Akono Edouard, senior lecturer, assisted in coordinating, collecting, and organizing data. Tanwi Cheche, student, collected and organized the data. Ngassoum Martin Benoit, professor, overviewed all the work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Allsop M, Huxdorff C, Johnston P, Santillo D and Thompson K (2015) pesticides and our health—a growing concern. Greenpeace Research Laboratories(RLG), School of Biosciences, Innovation Centre Phase 2, Rennes Drive , University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RN, UK, p56Google Scholar
- Amalia L, Nida B, Brenda E, and Ruth A (2008) Children’s health and the environment: WHO training package for the health sector. www.who.int/ceh. 07/11/2013
- Amawa SG, Jude NK, Tata ES, Azieh EA (2015) The implications of climate variability on market gardening in Santa sub-division, North West Region of Cameron. Env and Nat Res Res 5(2):56–65Google Scholar
- Arafa A, Afify M, Samy N (2013) Evaluation of adverse health effects of pesticides exposure (biochemical & hormonal) among Egyptian farmers. J of Appl Sc Res 9(7):4404–4409Google Scholar
- Beti T (2002) Pesticides safety handbookcurriculum development and reproduction made possible by grants from the NIEHS (P01ES09601) and US EPA (R826886); p25Google Scholar
- Clark D (1994) Physico-chemical properties and environmental fate of pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency Department of Pesticides Regulation Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management Branch 1020 N Street, Sacramento, California 95814, EH 94-03Google Scholar
- Eze SC, Mba CL and Ezeaku PI (2016) Analytical review of pesticide formulation trends and application: the effects on the target organisms and environment. Int. J. of Sc., Env. and Tech. 5(1), pp 253–266. ISSN 2278-3687 (O)Google Scholar
- Gold LS, Slone TH, Ames BN, Manley NB (2001) Pesticides residues in food and cancer risk: a critical analysis. In: Krieger R (ed) Handbook of pesticides toxicology, second edn. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 799–843Google Scholar
- Kamga A, Kouame C, Tchindjang M, Chagomoka T, Drescher AW (2013) Environmental impacts from overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides amongst market gardening in Bamenda, Cameroon. Revue Scientifique et Technique Forêt et Environnement du Bassin du Congo:6–19Google Scholar
- Margaret S , Donald C, Kathleen K, Cathy V, Luz HS, Kate B, (2004) Pesticide health effects and children. In: Systematic review of pesticide human health effects. The Ontario College of Family Physicians, 357 Bay Street, Mezzanine, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2T7. p. 167–169. Available at: www.ocfp.on.ca. Accessed June 2017.
- Mbiapo FD and Youovop G (1990) Pesticides use in agriculture, public health, and animal husbandry in Cameroon. Impact of pesticides use on health in developing countries. In: Proceedings of a symposium held in Ottawa Canada 17–20 September, 1990. ARCHIV 93970. International development research Centre, IDRC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- Miller GT (2004) Sustaining the earth, 6th edn. Thompson Learning, Inc., Pacific Grove, California, pp 211–216Google Scholar
- Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) (2013) National Registration Commission of Phytosanitary Products and Certification of Sprayers. List of homologated pesticides in Cameroon: reserved for the general public, p40Google Scholar
- National Park Service (NPS) (2001) Physical properties and health effects of pesticides used on National Park Service collections. NPS Museum Management Program, 1849 C Street NW (NC 230), Washington, DC 20240 (202) pp 343. <http://www.cr.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/>
- Pest Management Industry and Government Sector Advisory Group (PMIGSAG) (2004) Guidelines for the safe use of pesticides in non-agricultural workplaces. Department of Health Pesticide Safety Branch, Perth Business Centre WA 6849, p77Google Scholar
- Pouokam GB, William LA, Alice SN, Mohamed ES (2017) A pilot study in Cameroon to understand safe uses of pesticides in agriculture, risk factors for farmers’ exposure and management of accidental cases. Toxics 5(30):1–15Google Scholar
- Sonchieu J (2006) Selling pesticides in Ngaoundere, Cameroon. Crop Prot 48:180–181Google Scholar
- Tanga MG (2014) Effects of pesticides use on hepatic and renal functions in gardeners in the Western highlands of Cameroon. Master of Science thesis in Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Cameroon. 78 pGoogle Scholar
- Tarla DN, Manu IN, Tamedjouong ZT, Kamga A, Fontem DA (2015) Plight of pesticides applicators in Cameroon: case of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) farmers in Foumbot. J. Agr. Env. Sc. 4(2):87–98Google Scholar
- Tomlin CDS (ed) (2003) The e-pesticide manual (ePM), version 3.0, 2003–2004. 13th edn. British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UKGoogle Scholar
- Workcover (2006) Safe use and storage of chemicals (including pesticides and herbicides) in agriculture: code of practice. Catalogue No. WC00422, WorkCover NSW 92-100 Donnison Street Gosford NSW 2250 Locked Bag 2906 Lisarow. Available at: www.workcover.nsw.gov.au. Accessed July 2017
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) Children's health and environment: a review of evidence. A joint report from the European Environment Agency and the WHO Regional Office for Europe Environmental issue. Report No 29 Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Community, p325Google Scholar
- Zephania NF (2014) Montane resources exploitation and the emergence of gender issues in Santa economy of the western Bamboutos highlands, Cameroon. Int J Geo Reg Plan Res 1(1):1–12Google Scholar