Feet in danger: short exposure to contaminated soil causing health damage—an experimental study
In this study, hematological and behavioral changes in Wistar rats exposed to soil collected from urban areas next to an industrial complex were investigated. Animals were exposed to soil samples placed at the bottom of cages for 4 days. After this period, behavioral parameters were measured by the open field test and the elevated plus-maze. Blood was collected to measure hematological parameters. The soil from the vicinity of the oil refining industry caused changes in hematological parameters and altered behavioral parameters in both tests. The soil from the vicinity of the petroleum refining industry and fertilizer industries increased the density of white blood cells and decreased exploratory activity in the exposed animals. The results demonstrate that contact with contaminated soils, even for short periods, can cause physiological damage in organisms and that special attention should be given to people who live under constant exposure to these soils.
KeywordsContaminated soils Open field Elevated plus-maze Hematology
Compliance with ethical standards
All the animal experiments carried out followed the Brazilian standards dictated by the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation (COBEA, 1991) and were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Health Area Research/FURG (No. 53/2008).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Budinsky RA, Rowlands JC, Casteel S, Fent G, Cushing CA, Newsted J, Giesy JP, Ruby MV, Aylward LL (2008) A pilot study of oral 97 bioavailability of dioxins and furans from contaminated soils: impact of differential hepatic enzyme activity and species differences. Chemosphere 70(10):1774–1786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.08.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chasin AAN, Pedroso MFM (2003) O estudo da Toxicologia. (cap. 1). In: Azevedo FA, Chasin AAM (eds) As Bases Toxicológicas da Ecotoxicologia. RIMA, São PauloGoogle Scholar
- COBEA (Colégio Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal) 1991 Os princípios éticos da experimentação animal. São PauloGoogle Scholar
- Costa MAG, Costa EC 2004 Poluição Ambiental: Herança para gerações futuras. Santa Maria: ORIUM, 256ppGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva Júnior FMR, Monarca R, Dias D, Ramalhinho MG, Mathias ML, Muccillo-Baisch AL (2012) Physiological damage in Algerian mouse Mus spretus (Rodentia, Muridae) exposed to crude oil. J BioSci Biotechnol 1(2):125–133Google Scholar
- Da Silva Júnior FMR, Silva PF, Garcia EM, Klein RD, Peraza-Cardoso G, Baisch PR, Muccillo-Baisch AL (2013) Toxic effects of the ingestion of water-soluble elements found in soil under the atmospheric influence of an industrial complex. Environ Geochem Health 35(3):317–331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-012-9496-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Halatek T, Lutz P, Stetkiewicz J, Krajnow A, Wieczorek E, Swiercz R, Szymczak M, Wasowicz W (2013) Comparison of neurobehavioral and biochemical effects in rats exposed to dusts from copper smelter plant at different locations. J Environ Sci Health A 48(9):1000–1011. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2013.773198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Patil RD, Tripathi HC (2007) Effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight water-contaminating metals: a biochemical and histopathological study in male rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53(4):667–677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-007-0031-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marques CC, Gabriel SI, Pinheiro T, Viegas-Crespo AM, Mathias ML, Bebianno MJ (2008) Metallothionein levels in Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to elemental pollution: an ecophysiological approach. Chemosphere 71(7):1340–1347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martinez CS, Alterman CD, Peçanha FM, Vassallo DV, Mello-Carpes PB, Miguel M, Wiggers GA (2017) Aluminum exposure at human dietary levels for 60 days reaches a threshold sufficient to promote memory impairment in rats. Neurotox Res 31(1):20–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-016-9656-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schnoor JL (1996) Environmental modeling: fate and transport of in water, air and soil. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Siqueira JO, Moreira FMS, Grisi BM, Hungria M, Araújo RS 1994 Microrganismos e processos biológicos do solo: Perspectiva ambiental. Brasília. EMBRAPA, 142ppGoogle Scholar
- Stenberg B (1999) Monitoring soil quality of arable land: microbiological indicator. Soil Plants Sci 49:263–272Google Scholar
- U.S.E.P.A (1996) Exposure factors handbook. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Yagminas AP, Franklin CA, Villeneuve DC, Gilman AP, Little PB, Valli VEO (1990) Suchronic oral toxicity of triethyl lead in the male weanling rat. Clinical biochemical, hematological, and histopathological effects. Fundam Appl Toxicol 15(3):580–596. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-0590(90)90043-J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang, D., Yang, X., Deng, F., & Guo, X. 2017. Ambient air pollution and biomarkers of health effect. In Ambient air pollution and health impact in China. Springer, Singapore, pp. 59–102Google Scholar