Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10555–10566 | Cite as

High efficacy of (Z)-γ-bisabolene from the essential oil of Galinsoga parviflora (Asteraceae) as larvicide and oviposition deterrent against six mosquito vectors

  • Marimuthu Govindarajan
  • Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
  • Shine Kadaikunnan
  • Jamal M. Khaled
  • Mohammed N. Al-anbr
  • Sami A. Alyahya
  • Filippo Maggi
  • Giovanni Benelli
Plant-borne compounds and nanoparticles: challenges for medicine, parasitology and entomology


The eco-friendly management of mosquitoes with novel and effective larvicides and oviposition deterrents is a crucial challenge to prevent outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases. However, most of the herbal formulations tested in these years showed LC50 values higher of 40 ppm, and significant oviposition deterrent activity only when tested at relatively higher doses (> 50 μg/ml). Herein, we studied the chemical composition of the Galinsoga parviflora essential oil (EO). This plant is an annual herb native to South America naturalized all over the world. We tested the EO larvicidal and oviposition deterrent action on 6 mosquito species. Totally 37 compounds were identified in the EO of G. parviflora by GC and GC-MS analyses. The major constituent was (Z)-γ-bisabolene (38.9%). The G. parviflora EO and (Z)-γ-bisabolene showed acute toxicity on An. stephensi (LC50 = 31.04 and 2.04 μg/ml, respectively), Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.22 and 2.26 μg/ml, respectively), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 37.10 and 2.47 μg/ml, respectively), An. subpictus (LC50 = 40.97 and 4.09 μg/ml, respectively), Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 45.55 and 4.50 μg/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 49.56 and 4.87 μg/ml, respectively) larvae. Furthermore, the oviposition deterrent potential of the G. parviflora EO and (Z)-γ-bisabolene was studied on six mosquito vectors, showing that 25 μg/ml of (Z)-γ-bisabolene led to an Oviposition Activity Index lower of − 0.79 in all tested mosquito vectors. Overall, all larvicidal LC50 values estimated for (Z)-γ-bisabolene were lower than 5 μg/ml. This result far encompasses current evidences of toxicity reported for the large majority of botanical products currently tested against mosquito young instars, allowing us to propose this compound as an highly effective mosquito larvicide and oviposition deterrent.


Culicidae Dengue Japanese encephalitis Malaria Vector control Zika virus (Z)-γ-bisabolene 



The authors are grateful to the Professor and Head of the Department of Zoology, Annamalai University for laboratory provisions granted. The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group no. RG-1438-091.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia
  2. 2.Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and ManagementAlagappa UniversityKaraikudiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.National Center for Biotechnology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and TechnologyRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.School of PharmacyUniversity of CamerinoCamerinoItaly
  6. 6.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  7. 7.The BioRobotics Institute, Sant’Anna School of Advanced StudiesPontederaItaly

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