Effects of air pollution on hospital visits for pneumonia in children: a two-year analysis from China
- 185 Downloads
Although the effect of air pollution on respiratory health has been identified, few studies can be available to evaluate the association of air pollution with hospital visits for children’s pneumonia in China. To explore whether high concentrations of air pollutants (including PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2) are related to hospital visits for pneumonia in children, we conducted a population-based time-series study in Ningbo, China, from January 1st, 2014 to November 1st, 2015. We used a generalized additive Poisson regression model to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations of air pollutants and hospital visits for pneumonia in children and found that these four pollutants were associated with the increased hospital visits for pneumonia in children (1.3% for PM2.5, 1.0% for PM10, 2.9% for NO2, 5.0% for SO2 per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2, respectively). Stronger associations were observed in the cold seasons and among children under 5 years.
KeywordsAir pollution Hospital visits for pneumonia Generalized additive Poisson regression model Time series analysis Children Public health
This study was supported and funded by the Air Pollution and Health Research Center, Zhejiang University (14.585302-001) and Yinzhou Special Foundation for Agricultural and Social Development (YZ-STB-2015-96).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval and consent to participate
This study did not contain confidential patient data. Committee of Ethics, Yinzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention approved this study. The patient’s consent to participate is not applicable in this study.
- Bureau NMS (2015) Ningbo Statistical Bulletin for National Economic and Social Development 2015 (in Chinese). http://www.nbstats.gov.cn/read/20160201/29009.aspx
- Fuertes E, MacIntyre E, Agius R, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Bucci S, Cesaroni G, Cirach M, Cyrys J, Forastiere F, Gehring U, Gruzieva O, Hoffmann B, Jedynska A, Keuken M, Klümper C, Kooter I, Korek M, Krämer U, Mölter A, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Pershagen G, Porta D, Postma DS, Simpson A, Smit HA, Sugiri D, Sunyer J, Wang M, Heinrich J (2014) Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects. Int J Hyg Environ Health 217(8):819–829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harris AM, Sempertegui F, Estrella B, Narvaez X, Egas J, Woodin M, Durant JL, Naumova EN, Griffiths JK (2011) Air pollution and anemia as risk factors for pneumonia in Ecuadorian children: a retrospective cohort analysis. Environ Health-Glob 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-10-93
- Host S, Larrieu S, Pascal L, Blanchard M, Declercq C, Fabre P, Jusot JF, Chardon B, Le Tertre A, Wagner V, Prouvost H, Lefranc A (2008) Short-term associations between fine and coarse particles and hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory diseases in six French cities. Occup Environ Med 65(8):544–551. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2007.036194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kan H, London SJ, Chen G, Zhang Y, Song G, Zhao N, Jiang L, Chen B (2008) Season, sex, age, and education as modifiers of the effects of outdoor air pollution on daily mortality in Shanghai, China: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Study. Environ Health Perspect 116(9):1183–1188. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10851 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Makinen TM, Juvonen R, Jokelainen J, Harju TH, Peitso A, Bloigu A, Silvennoinen-Kassinen S, Leinonen M, Hassi J (2009) Cold temperature and low humidity are associated with increased occurrence of respiratory tract infections. Respir Med 103(3):456–462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2008.09.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Paoletti P, Carrozzi L, Viegi G, Modena P, Ballerin L, Di Pede F, Grado L, Baldacci S, Pedreschi M, Vellutini M, Et A (1995) Distribution of bronchial responsiveness in a general population: effect of sex, age, smoking, and level of pulmonary function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151(6):1770–1777. https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.151.6.7767519 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz J (2004) Air pollution and children’s health. Pediatrics 113S:1037–1043Google Scholar
- WHO (2015) Pneumonia. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs331/en/