Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 10049–10057 | Cite as

Effects of air pollution on hospital visits for pneumonia in children: a two-year analysis from China

  • Die Li
  • Jian-bing Wang
  • Zhen-yu Zhang
  • Peng Shen
  • Pei-wen Zheng
  • Ming-juan Jin
  • Huai-chu Lu
  • Hong-bo Lin
  • Kun Chen
Research Article


Although the effect of air pollution on respiratory health has been identified, few studies can be available to evaluate the association of air pollution with hospital visits for children’s pneumonia in China. To explore whether high concentrations of air pollutants (including PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2) are related to hospital visits for pneumonia in children, we conducted a population-based time-series study in Ningbo, China, from January 1st, 2014 to November 1st, 2015. We used a generalized additive Poisson regression model to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations of air pollutants and hospital visits for pneumonia in children and found that these four pollutants were associated with the increased hospital visits for pneumonia in children (1.3% for PM2.5, 1.0% for PM10, 2.9% for NO2, 5.0% for SO2 per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2, respectively). Stronger associations were observed in the cold seasons and among children under 5 years.


Air pollution Hospital visits for pneumonia Generalized additive Poisson regression model Time series analysis Children Public health 


Funding information

This study was supported and funded by the Air Pollution and Health Research Center, Zhejiang University (14.585302-001) and Yinzhou Special Foundation for Agricultural and Social Development (YZ-STB-2015-96).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval and consent to participate

This study did not contain confidential patient data. Committee of Ethics, Yinzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention approved this study. The patient’s consent to participate is not applicable in this study.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1192_MOESM1_ESM.docx (25 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 25 kb).
11356_2018_1192_MOESM2_ESM.docx (142 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 142 kb).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Health StatisticsZhejiang University School of Public HealthHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Research Center for Air Pollution and HealthZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.John Hopkins School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Yinzhou DistrictNingboChina

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