Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10340–10352 | Cite as

Development of an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from Alangium salvifolium against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and its biosafety on the aquatic predator

  • Annamalai Thanigaivel
  • Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan
  • Edward-Sam Edwin
  • Athirstam Ponsankar
  • Selvaraj Selin-Rani
  • Muthiah Chellappandian
  • Kandaswamy Kalaivani
  • Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
  • Giovanni Benelli
Plant-borne compounds and nanoparticles: challenges for medicine, parasitology and entomology


Plant extracts with their enriched chemical constituents have established potential alternative mosquito control agents. In this research, we developed an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from Alangium salvifolium leaves against the dengue and Zika virus vector Aedes aegypti and we investigated its biosafety on the mosquito aquatic predator Toxorhynchites splendens. Results showed that the methanolic extract of A. salvifolium leaves was composed by eight main compounds, with major peak area for hexadecenoic acid (21.74%). LC50 and LC90 values calculated on Ae. aegypti fourth instar larvae were 104.80 and 269.15 ppm respectively. The methanolic extract tested at 100 ppm decreased the α-β carboxylesterase and SOD ratio significantly and upregulated the GST and CYP450 level. The A. salvifolium methanolic extract displayed significant repellent and adulticidal activity at 100 and 400 ppm respectively. The treatment with 100 ppm of the methanolic extract led to 210 min of protection from Ae. aegypti bites. Four hundred parts per million of the extract showed 98% adult mortality within 30 min from the treatment. Lastly, biosafety assays on the mosquito aquatic predator Tx. splendens showed that the toxicity of the A. salvifolium extract was significantly lower if compared to the cypermethrin-based treatments. The methanolic extract of A. salvifolium showed a maximum of 47.3% mortality rate at the concentration of 1000 ppm, while 0.7 ppm of cypermethrin achieved 91.3% mortality rate on Tx. splendens. Overall, our study enhances basic knowledge on how to improve natural larvicidal agents against dengue and Zika virus mosquito vector with harmless responses on non-target aquatic predators.


Biocontrol agent Larvicides GST CYP450 Oxidative stress Detoxification Yellow fever 



Author Annamalai Thanigaivel was supported by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Government of India (45/32/2013/BMS/TRM).

Compliance with ethical standards

All applicable international and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annamalai Thanigaivel
    • 1
  • Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan
    • 1
  • Edward-Sam Edwin
    • 1
  • Athirstam Ponsankar
    • 1
  • Selvaraj Selin-Rani
    • 1
  • Muthiah Chellappandian
    • 1
  • Kandaswamy Kalaivani
    • 2
  • Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
    • 1
  • Giovanni Benelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Biopesticides and Environmental Toxicology, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Excellence in Environmental SciencesManonmaniam Sundaranar UniversityTirunelveliIndia
  2. 2.Post Graduate and Research Centre, Department of ZoologySri Parasakthi College for WomenTirunelveliIndia
  3. 3.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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