Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10307–10316 | Cite as

Zingiber cernuum (Zingiberaceae) essential oil as effective larvicide and oviposition deterrent on six mosquito vectors, with little non-target toxicity on four aquatic mosquito predators

  • Mohan Rajeswary
  • Marimuthu Govindarajan
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
  • Shine Kadaikunnan
  • Jamal M. Khaled
  • Giovanni Benelli
Plant-borne compounds and nanoparticles: challenges for medicine, parasitology and entomology


Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of many pathogens and parasites, which cause serious diseases in humans and animals. Currently, botanical products have been suggested as alternative tools in the fight against arthropod vectors. In this study, the essential oil (EO) extracted from Zingiber cernuum was tested as larvicide and oviposition deterrent on six mosquito species of public health relevance, including malaria and Zika virus vectors. The EO showed high toxicity on third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (LC50 = 41.34 μg/ml), Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 44.88 μg/ml), Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 48.44 μg/ml), Anopheles subpictus (LC50 = 51.42 μg/ml), Aedes albopictus (LC50 = 55.84 μg/ml), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 60.20 μg/ml). In addition, low doses of Z. cernuum EO reduced oviposition rates in six mosquito species. The acute toxicity of Z. cernuum EO on four mosquito predators was scarce; LC50 ranged from 3119 to 11,233 μg/ml. Overall, our results revealed that the Z. cernuum EO can be considered for the development of effective and environmental-friendly mosquito larvicides and oviposition deterrents.


Aquatic toxicology Biosafety Dengue Japanese encephalitis Malaria Neglected tropical disease Zika virus 



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group No  RG-1438-074.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohan Rajeswary
    • 1
  • Marimuthu Govindarajan
    • 1
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
    • 2
  • Shine Kadaikunnan
    • 2
  • Jamal M. Khaled
    • 2
  • Giovanni Benelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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