Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 31, pp 30818–30825 | Cite as

Evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease potential in cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide-exposed females

  • Eman I. DrazEmail author
  • Azza M. Hassan
  • Haidy S. Khalil
  • Mohamed A. Elomary
Environmental Pollution: Problems and Solutions


Cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides, mainly organophosphates and carbamates, are commonly used in Egypt. Chronic exposure of males and females working in agriculture is expected. The study aimed to relate exposure to cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides to the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This is a case-control study that was conducted among 84 females. Seventy patients complained of pelvic inflammatory disease visited the outpatient Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic. Fourteen females were not suffering from PID and were chosen as a control group. Red blood cells’ cholinesterase activity was measured in blood. Cervical swaps were collected, and cultures were submitted for microbiological examination. The results showed that cholinesterase activities were significantly depressed in exposed females (6.36 ± 0.8 μmoles/min/ml red cells) when compared to non-exposed (7.5 ± 1.2 μmoles/min/ml red cells), and both were significantly depressed when compared with healthy females (9.17 ± 0.7 μmoles/min/ml red cells). The correlation coefficient (r) between previous exposure and the laboratory confirmed cervical infection was 0.31, with a P value of 0.009. The study concluded that exposure to cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides could increase the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease.


Pelvic inflammatory disease Cholinesterase inhibitors Pesticides Organophosphates Carbamates Red blood cells cholinesterase activity Environmental pollution 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eman I. Draz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Azza M. Hassan
    • 2
  • Haidy S. Khalil
    • 2
  • Mohamed A. Elomary
    • 3
  1. 1.Department Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of MedicineTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.Department Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of MedicineTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  3. 3.Department Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of MedicineTanta UniversityTantaEgypt

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