Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10250–10263 | Cite as

Exploiting fruit byproducts for eco-friendly nanosynthesis: Citrus × clementina peel extract mediated fabrication of silver nanoparticles with high efficacy against microbial pathogens and rat glial tumor C6 cells

  • Rijuta Ganesh Saratale
  • Han-Seung Shin
  • Gopalakrishnan Kumar
  • Giovanni Benelli
  • Gajanan S. Ghodake
  • Yuan Yuan Jiang
  • Dong Su Kim
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
Plant-borne compounds and nanoparticles: challenges for medicine, parasitology and entomology


Process byproducts from the fruit industry may represent a cheap and reliable source of green reducing agents to be used in current bio-nanosynthesis. This study reports the use of orange (Citrus × clementina) peel aqueous extract (OPE) for one-pot green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with high effectiveness against various microbial pathogens as well as rat glial tumor C6 cells. The effects of various operational parameters on the synthesis of AgNPs were systematically investigated. The morphology, particle size, and properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanoparticles are mostly spherical in shape and monodispersed, with an average particle size of 15–20 nm. Notably, the OPE-synthesized AgNPs were stable up to 6 months without change in their properties. Low doses of OPE-AgNPs inhibited the growth of human pathogens Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of AgNPs against selected pathogenic bacteria were determined. OPE-AgNPs exhibited strong antioxidant activity in terms of ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging (IC50 49.6 μg/mL) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging (IC50 63.4 μg/mL). OPE-AgNPs showed dose-dependent response against rat glial tumor C6 cells (LD50 60 μg/mL) showing a promising potential as anticancer agents. Overall, the current investigation highlighted a cheap green technology route to synthesize AgNPs using OPE byproducts and could potentially be utilized in biomedical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry.


Green synthesis Orange peel extract In vitro cytotoxicity ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging activity Antimicrobial activity HR-TEM 



This research was supported by the Agricultural Research Center funded by the Ministry of Food, Forestry, and Fisheries, Korea. One of the author GK acknowledges Korea Research Fellowship Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant No: 2016H1D3A1908953). The authors would like to thank Prof. Shrikrishna D. Sartale, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, India, for availing the HR-TEM facility. The authors are also thankful to Mr. Oh Sung-Taek, Dongguk University, for his technical help during anticancer studies.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rijuta Ganesh Saratale
    • 1
  • Han-Seung Shin
    • 2
  • Gopalakrishnan Kumar
    • 3
  • Giovanni Benelli
    • 4
  • Gajanan S. Ghodake
    • 5
  • Yuan Yuan Jiang
    • 6
  • Dong Su Kim
    • 7
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute of Biotechnology and Medical Converged ScienceDongguk University–SeoulGoyang-siRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and BiotechnologyDongguk University–SeoulGoyang-siRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Environmental EngineeringDaegu UniversityGyeongsanRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  5. 5.Department of Biological and Environmental ScienceDongguk UniversityGoyang-siRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Department of Medical BiotechnologyDongguk UniversityGoyang-siRepublic of Korea
  7. 7.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringEwha Womans UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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