Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 31, pp 30808–30817 | Cite as

Assessment and modeling of groundwater quality using WQI and GIS in Upper Egypt area

  • Ragab ElSayed RabeiyEmail author
Environmental Pollution: Problems and Solutions


The continuous growth and development of population need more fresh water for drinking, irrigation, and domestic in arid countries like Egypt. Evaluation the quality of groundwater is an essential study to ensure its suitability for different purposes. In this study, 812 groundwater samples were taken within the middle area of Upper Egypt (Sohag Governorate) to assess the quality of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. Eleven water parameters were analyzed at each groundwater sample (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 SO4 2−, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cl, electrical conductivity, and pH) to exploit them in water quality evaluation. A classical statistics were applied for the raw data to examine the distribution of physicochemical parameters in the investigated area. The relationship between groundwater parameters was tested using the correlation coefficient where a strong relationship was found between several water parameters such as Ca2+ and Cl. Water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical model used to transform many water parameters into a single indicator value which represents the water quality level. Results of WQI showed that 20% of groundwater samples are excellent, 75% are good for drinking, and 7% are very poor water while only 1% of samples are unsuitable for drinking. To test the suitability of groundwater for irrigation, three indices are used; they are sodium adsorption ration (SAR), sodium percentage (Na%), and permeability index (PI). For irrigation suitability, the study proved that most sampling sites are suitable while less than 3% are unsuitable for irrigation. The spatial distribution of the estimated values of WQI, SAR, Na%, PI, and each groundwater parameter was spatially modeled using GIS.


Groundwater GIS Spatial modeling WQI SAR PI 



The author thanks the Groundwater Sector (GWS) of Upper Egypt (belonging to Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation). It provides this work with the data of groundwater samples and locations of each sample. I am greatly appreciating the help of Eng. Essam Hamdan (working at GWS, Upper Egypt) for his help in administrating the information of the supplied data.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt

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