Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 31, pp 30787–30792 | Cite as

Mechanical ventilator as a major cause of infection and drug resistance in intensive care unit

  • Marwa M. E. Abd-ElmonsefEmail author
  • Dalia Elsharawy
  • Ayman S. Abd-Elsalam
Environmental Pollution: Problems and Solutions


Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent infection in intensive care units (ICU). It is associated with high rates of long morbidity and mortality. Management of a case of VAP is often said to add $40,000 to hospital costs USA. All these data directed our interest to study the etiology, risk factors, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of VAP in ICU of Tanta University Hospital. This study included 36 cases of VAP. Endotracheal aspirates were obtained from all cases and microbiologically analyzed. Samples were collected over 1 year. Forty-two strains were isolated from 28 cases, while eight cases showed no bacterial growth. The most frequent organism was Staphylococcus aureus (30.95%), followed by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.43% for each), and the least common was Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.38%). Multi-drug resistance was detected in (50%) of the isolated bacteria in this study. Imipenem, amikacin, linezolid, vancomycin, and levofloxacin are recommended to be the most effective drugs in management of VAP. VAP is a serious problem in ICU carrying many risks for the patient live. Regimens of empirical treatment should take in consideration the update in the bacterial etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of VAP.


Ventilator-associated pneumonia Intensive care Multi-drug resistance 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research funding

Authors did not receive any funding from any organization or institution for this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marwa M. E. Abd-Elmonsef
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dalia Elsharawy
    • 2
  • Ayman S. Abd-Elsalam
    • 3
  1. 1.Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of MedicineTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.Chest Diseases Department, Faculty of MedicineTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  3. 3.Anesthesia Department, Faculty of MedicineTanta UniversityTantaEgypt

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