Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 9, pp 8747–8764 | Cite as

Chemical characterization and quantitativ e assessment of source-specific health risk of trace metals in PM1.0 at a road site of Delhi, India

  • Jai Prakash
  • Tarachand Lohia
  • Anil K. Mandariya
  • Gazala Habib
  • Tarun Gupta
  • Sanjay K. Gupta
Research Article


This study presents the concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1.0) collected during November, 2009 to March, 2010 at two road sites near the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus. In winter, PM1.0 composed 83% of PM2.5 indicating the dominance of combustion activity-generated particles. Principal component analysis (PCA) proved secondary aerosol formation as a dominant process in enhancing aerosol concentration at a receptor site along with biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, road dust, engine and tire tear wear, and secondary ammonia. The non-carcinogenic and excess cancer risk for adults and children were estimated for trace element data set available for road site and at elevated site from another parallel work. The decrease in average hazard quotient (HQ) for children and adults was estimated in following order: Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cu both at road and elevated site. For children, the mean HQs were observed in safe level for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb; however, values exceeded safe limit for Cr and Mn at road site. The average highest hazard index values for children and adults were estimated as 22 and 10, respectively, for road site and 7 and 3 for elevated site. The road site average excess cancer risk (ECR) risk of Cr and Ni was close to tolerable limit (10−4) for adults and it was 13–16 times higher than the safe limit (10−6) for children. The ECR of Ni for adults and children was 102 and 14 times higher at road site compared to elevated site. Overall, the observed ECR values far exceed the acceptable level.


Road site PM1.0 Ions Trace elements PCA-MLR Risk apportionment Delhi 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of IIT Delhi through seed grant for the completion of this project. The authors also acknowledge the contribution of M. Tech. colleague (Amrita Singhai) and for his participation in sample collection and chemical analyses.

Supplementary material

11356_2017_1174_MOESM1_ESM.docx (136 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 136 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia

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