Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 31, pp 30763–30771 | Cite as

Change detection for Lake Burullus, Egypt using remote sensing and GIS approaches

  • A. MohsenEmail author
  • M. Elshemy
  • B. A. Zeidan
Environmental Pollution: Problems and Solutions


Lake Burullus is the second largest natural coastal lake in Egypt. It has an economic importance for fish yield. However, several anthropogenic activities such as industrial, agriculture, and reclamation activities lead to a deterioration of its water quality and a decrease of the water body area of the lake. This study aims to detect the spatiotemporal changes of Lake Burullus in the period 1972–2015 using 12 Landsat {(1,3-MSS), (4,5-TM), and (7-ETM+)} imageries and water indices approach. To extract water feature from imageries, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Water Ratio Index (WRI) were applied. The NDWI was applied to the MSS imageries. For other TM and ETM+ imageries, the WRI was applied. Obtained results show a significant decrease in the water area of the Lake Burullus, where it lost about (49%) of its surface area during the period from the year 1972 to the year 2015. A rapid decrease in the lake surface area was noticed through the period from 1972 to 1984. A prediction model was built depending on the calculated water area of the lake. Finally, the multi-temporal maps of the lake surface area are overlaid to produce a map for the changes of the lake surface area using Geographic Information System (GIS).


Remote sensing Change detection Normalized difference water index (NDWI) Water ratio index (WRI) Geographic information system (GIS) Lake Burullus 



This article was originated as a part of MSc thesis at the Tanta University, Egypt. The authors extremely thank the reviewers for their hard work to improve the quality of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt

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