Urban waterlogging stems from coverage with impervious surfaces and increasing rainfall intensity from climate change and variability, meaning that storm water cannot readily infiltrate the ground and excessive surface runoff leads to urban flooding. To reduce related environmental and safety risks, rainfall and groundwater level research was carried out in Kyoto Prefecture with two rain gardens (RG1 and RG2) to investigate flood mitigation functions using a tank model. During the 134 days of monitoring from July 14, 2017, to November 25, 2017, RG1 had seven overflow events with an average runoff control ratio of 63.94%, and RG2 had one event with a ratio of 95.97%. The RG1 tank model (two stages) showed that initial storage for the first and second depths was 6.912 × 10−11 and 0 mm, respectively. The heights of the discharge holes were 20.857 and 0.784 mm for the first stage and 0.659 mm for the second stage, and the discharge hole coefficients were 0.529 and 0.002 for the first stage and 0.004 for the second stage. The results showed that RG1 had penetration hole coefficients of 0.138 (first stage) and 0.254 (second stage), with a water balance error of 0.017 (< 0.02) and a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.922, indicating better reliability and quality than RG2 with the one-stage tank model. Peak flow simulation for mitigation showed that RG1 had a high overflow control ratio (mitigation time 2 h for instant rainfall of 100 mm/h), and can therefore be considered appropriate for other urban areas of Japan.
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This study was funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (18H02226). The authors are grateful to Dr. Yosuke Watanabe, Dr. Sotaro Yonemura and Takamasa Hirano of Shimizu Corporation for their assistance with related field and laboratory work. Additional thanks are due to Dr. Shigehiro Yokota of Tokyo City University for his valuable advice and contribution to the project.
See Table 6.
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Zhang, L., Oyake, Y., Morimoto, Y. et al. Flood mitigation function of rain gardens for management of urban storm runoff in Japan. Landscape Ecol Eng 16, 223–232 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11355-020-00409-8
- Rain garden
- Tank model
- Storm runoff
- Flood mitigation