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The effect of combined resistance aerobic exercise training on concentrations of asprosin and complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein-1 in men with type 2 diabetes



The present study aimed to investigate the effect of combined resistance aerobic exercise training on asprosin and complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein-1 concentrations in men with type 2 diabetes.


Twenty four male patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to two combined resistance aerobic exercise training group (n = 12) and control group (n = 12). The combined resistance aerobic exercise training was performed within three sessions per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between the groups with pre-test values as covariates.


After 12 weeks, asprosin concentration (p = 0.04), resistance insulin (p = 0.01), HbA1c (p = 0.001), fasting glucose (p = 0.01), weight (p = 0.04), body mass index (0.03), body fat percentage (0.001), total cholesterol (p = 0.04), Triglycerides (p = 0.03) significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the control group. Significant changes were not observed at the complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein-1 concentration (p = 0.52), WHR (p = 0.29), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.85), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.12), and fat free mass (p = 0.98) between the groups. After 12 weeks in the combined exercise group, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.007) decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.01) increased significantly compared with the baseline. There was a significant positive correlation between asprosin changes with HbA1c(r = 0.44, p = 0.02) and resistance insulin (r = 0.43, p = 0.03) changes.


These findings suggest that combined resistance aerobic exercise training effectively decreases asprosin concentration and improves glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has no effect on complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein-1 concentrations.

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Data accessibility

The data and materials used and/or analyzed in the current study are available from the corresponding author, upon reasonable request.


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Thanks are owed to the patients and volunteers participated in this study.


The present study was financially supported by University of Neyshabur, Iran.

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All authors contributed to subject recruitment, data collection, review, and discussion of the trial report, and review and discussion of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mehdi Zarei.

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The study authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol was carried out in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences and registered number IRCT20181006041252N15 in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Primary Registry in the WHO Registry Network).

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Written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers.

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Zarei, M., Nakhzari Khodakheyr, J., Rashidlamir, A. et al. The effect of combined resistance aerobic exercise training on concentrations of asprosin and complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein-1 in men with type 2 diabetes. Sport Sci Health 17, 863–871 (2021).

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  • Exercise
  • Asprosin protein
  • C1QTNF1 protein
  • Type 2 diabetes