Energy contributions in swimmers with physical impairments in an all-out 200-m front crawl test

Abstract

Background

In competitive swimming, performance is associated with swimming a certain distance in the shortest possible time. Specifically, in an all-out 200-m front crawl test (T200), the intensity and duration of effort represent a challenge for coaches and swimmers to balance swimming speed with the ability to use different energy sources (aerobic and anaerobic) with lower energy cost (C). In the case of swimmers with physical impairments, physiological parameters are still little explored, and their monitoring may allow a better understanding of performance.

Aims

The aim of this study was to assess the total metabolic energetic contribution (Etot) and C of swimmers with physical impairments in a T200.

Methods

Eleven swimmers (7 males and 4 females; age: 32.3 ± 12.3 years) with physical impairments performed a T200 with the use of a snorkel and respiratory valve system. Measurements were performed for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood lactate concentration (La), Etot and C.

Results

The performance was 210.2 ± 48.1 s (swimming speed 0.99 ± 0.14im·s−1). The aerobic, anaerobic lactic and anaerobic alactic contributions were 70.1%, 17.1% and 12.8%, respectively. C was 1.22 ± 0.52 kJ m−1.

Conclusions

Swimmers with physical impairment of different sport classes presented, predominately, high aerobic metabolism contribution to the Etot and different values of C, with a certain tendency of C being lower in those faster swimmers than in slower swimmers. Possible divergences in this trend seem to be explained by the different competitive levels, body position and upper limb impairment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Abbreviations

Aer:

Aerobic contribution

AnAla:

Anaerobic alactic contribution

AnLa:

Anaerobic lactic contribution

C :

Energy cost

Etot:

Total metabolic energy contribution

La:

Blood lactate concentration

Larest :

Resting lactate

PCr:

Phosphocreatine

RER:

Respiratory exchange rate

S:

Sport classes (from S1 to S10)

T200:

An all-out 200-m front crawl test

v :

Mean swimming speed

VO2peak :

Peak oxygen uptake

VO2max :

Maximal oxygen uptake

VO2rest :

Resting oxygen uptake

βLab :

Difference between the post-test lactate and the resting lactate

References

  1. 1.

    di Prampero PE (1986) The energy cost of human locomotion on land and in water. Int J Sports Med 7(2):55–72. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1025736

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Barbosa TM, Bragada JA, Reis VM, Marinho DA, Carvalho C, Silva AJ (2010) Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors of swimming performance: updating the state of the art. J Sci Med Sport 13(2):262–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.01.003

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Figueiredo P, Rouard A, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2013) Upper- and lower-limb muscular fatigue during the 200-m front crawl. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme 38(7):716–724. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2012-0263

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Barbosa TM, Fernandes RJ, Keskinen KL, Vilas-Boas JP (2008) The influence of stroke mechanics into energy cost of elite swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol 103(2):139–149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0676-z

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Pelarigo JG, Machado L, Fernandes RJ, Greco CC, Vilas-Boas JP (2017) Oxygen uptake kinetics and energy system’s contribution around maximal lactate steady state swimming intensity. PLoS ONE 12(2):e0167263. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167263

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Keskinen OP, Keskinen KL, Mero AA (2007) Effect of pool length on blood lactate, heart rate, and velocity in swimming. Int J Sports Med 28(5):407–413. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-924505

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Sousa A, Figueiredo P, Oliveira NL, Oliveira J, Silva AJ, Keskinen KL, Rodriguez FA, Machado LJ, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2011) VO2 kinetics in 200-m race-pace front crawl swimming. Int J Sports Med 32(10):765–770. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1279772

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Feitosa WG, Barbosa TM, Correia RA, Castro FAS (2019) Is VO2peak a valid estimation of VO2max in swimmers with physical impairments? Res Q Exerc Sport 91:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2019.1660758

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Koenig J, Jarczok MN, Wasner M, Hillecke TK, Thayer JF (2014) Heart rate variability and swimming. Sports Med 44(10):1377–1391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0211-9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    di Prampero PE, Pendergast DR, Wilson DW, Rennie DW (1978) Blood lactic acid concentrations in high velocity swimming. In: Eriksson B, Furberg B (eds) Swimming medicine IV. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 249–261 (doi:citeulike-article-id:6824630)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Gonjo T, McCabe C, Sousa A, Ribeiro J, Fernandes RJ, Vilas-Boas JP, Sanders R (2018) Differences in kinematics and energy cost between front crawl and backstroke below the anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol 118(6):1107–1118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-3841-z

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Sousa A, Figueiredo P, Zamparo P, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2013) Anaerobic alactic energy assessment in middle distance swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol 113(8):2153–2158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2646-3

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Figueiredo P, Pendergast DR, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2013) Interplay of biomechanical, energetic, coordinative, and muscular factors in a 200 m front crawl swim. Biomed Res Int 2013:897232. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/897232

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Castro FAS, Mota CB (2010) Energetic and performance in 200 m front crawl under maximal intensity. R Bras Ci e Mov 18(2):67–75. https://doi.org/10.18511/rbcm.v18i2.1347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    de Souza H, Alves da Silva E, Santo Andrea Ortega L, Silva A, Esteves A, Schwingel P, Vital R, Alves da Rocha E, Rodrigues B, Lira F, Tufik S, de Mello M (2016) Incremental exercise test for the evaluation of peak oxygen consumption in paralympic swimmers. J Sports Med Phys Fit 56(4):368–375

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Rodrigues Junior V, De Jesus K, Corredeira R, Daly DJ, Fernandes RJ (2016) Caracterização fisiológica de nadadores com deficiência físico-motora [Physiological characterization of swimmers with physical disabilities] Leiria, Portugal. In: Mourouço PP, Batalha N, Fernandes RJ (eds) Natação e Atividades Aquáticas: Pedagogia, Treino e Investigação. ESECS/Instituto Poliétcnico de Leiria, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, pp 183–194

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    WPS (2018) World Para Swimming: technical rules & regulations. International Paralympic Committee, Bonn

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Van Dornick K, Spencer NLI (2020) What’s in a sport class? The classification experiences of paraswimmers. Adapted physical activity quarterly APAQ 37(1):1–19. https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2019-0007

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hogarth L, Payton C, Van De Vliet P, Burkett B (2020) The impact of limb deficiency impairment on Para swimming performance. J Sports Sci 38(8):839–847. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1735983

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Burkett B, Payton C, Van de Vliet P, Jarvis H, Daly D, Mehrkuehler C, Kilian M, Hogarth L (2018) Performance characteristics of para swimmers: how effective is the swimming classification system? Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 29(2):333–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2018.01.011

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    International Paralympic Committee [IPC] (2017) World Para Swimming: classification rules and regulations. International Paralympic Committee, Bonn

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Zacca R, Azevedo R, Silveira RP, Vilas-Boas JP, Pyne DB, Castro FA, Fernandes RJ (2017) Comparison of incremental intermittent and time trial testing in age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002087

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Sousa A, de Jesus K, Figueiredo P, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2013) Oxygen uptake kinetics at moderate and extreme swimming intensities. Revista Brasileira De Medicina Do Esporte 19:186–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    de Jesus K, Guidetti L, de Jesus K, Vilas-Boas JP, Baldari C, Fernandes RJ (2014) Which are the best VO2 sampling intervals to characterize low to severe swimming intensities? Int J Sports Med 35(12):1030–1036. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1368784

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Fernandes RJ, de Jesus K, Baldari C, de Jesus K, Sousa AC, Vilas-Boas JP, Guidetti L (2012) Different VO2max time-averaging intervals in swimming. Int J Sports Med 33(12):1010–1015. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1316362

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Ribeiro J, Figueiredo P, Guidetti L, Alves F, Toussaint H, Vilas-Boas JP, Baldari C, Fernandes RJ (2016) Aquatrainer(R) snorkel does not increase hydrodynamic drag but influences turning time. Int J Sports Med 37(4):324–328. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1555859

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Binzoni T, Ferretti G, Schenker K, Cerretelli P (1992) Phosphocreatine hydrolysis by 31P-NMR at the onset of constant-load exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 73(4):1644–1649. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1992.73.4.1644

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Capelli C, Pendergast D, Termin B (1998) Energetics of swimming at maximal speeds in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 78(5):385–395

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Zamparo P, Capelli C, Pendergast DR (2011) Energetics of swimming: a historical perspective. Eur J Appl Physiol 111(3):367–378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1433-7

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Figueiredo P, Zamparo P, Sousa A, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ (2011) An energy balance of the 200 m front crawl race. Eur J Appl Physiol 111(5):767–777. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1696-z

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Gastin PB (2001) Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise. Sports Med 31(10):725–741. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131100-00003

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Ohkuwa T, Itoh H (1992) Blood lactate, glycerol and catecholamine in arm strokes, leg kicks and whole crawl strokes. J Sports Med Phys Fit 32(1):32–38

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Oh YT, Burkett B, Osborough CD, Formosa D, Payton C (2013) London 2012 paralympic swimming: passive drag and the classification system. Br J Sports Med 47(13):838–843. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092192

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Chatard JC, Lavoie JM, Ottoz H, Randaxhe P, Cazorla G, Lacour JR (1992) Physiological aspects of swimming performance for persons with disabilities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24(11):1276–1282

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Tweedy SM, Vanlandewijck YC (2011) International Paralympic Committee position stand–background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport. Br J Sports Med 45(4):259–269. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.065060

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Hogarth L, Payton C, Nicholson V, Spathis J, Tweedy S, Connick M, Beckman E, Van de Vliet P, Burkett B (2019) Classifying motor coordination impairment in Para swimmers with brain injury. J Sci Med Sport 22(5):526–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.11.015

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Payton C, Hogarth L, Burkett B, Van de Vliet P, Lewis S, Oh YT (2020) Active drag as a criterion for evidence-based classification in para swimming. Med Sci Sports Exerc 52(7):1576–1584. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002281

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Feitosa WG, Correia RA, Barbosa TM, Castro FAS (2019) Kinematic, Coordinative and Efficiency Parameters of Physically Impaired Swimmers at Maximum Aerobic Power Speed. Open Sports Sci J 12

  39. 39.

    Feitosa WG, Correia RA, Barbosa TM, Castro FAS (2019) Performance of disabled swimmers in protocols or tests and competitions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Biomech Int Soc Biomech Sports. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2019.1654535

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Hogarth L, Payton C, Van de Vliet P, Connick M, Burkett B (2018) A novel method to guide classification of para swimmers with limb deficiency. Scand J Med Sci Sports 28(11):2397–2406. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13229

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

To CAPES/Brazilian Ministry of Education for their support in this research.

Funding

The study is part of a MSc project and the first author was funded by the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wellington G. Feitosa.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the research ethics committee of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, respecting the guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration.

Informed consent

All swimmers signed a written consent form in which the protocol was explained in detail.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ongaratto, D., Feitosa, W.G., Correia, R.d.A. et al. Energy contributions in swimmers with physical impairments in an all-out 200-m front crawl test. Sport Sci Health (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00728-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Physiological profile
  • Evaluation
  • Swimming performance
  • Paralympic