The role of adiposity in the relationship between physical fitness with cardiometabolic risk factors, adipocytokines and inflammation in children

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the role of adiposity in the relationship between physical fitness with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF), adipocytokines and inflammation in children.

Methods

This cross-sectional analysis, comprised 150 children (80 boys), aged 6–11 years, from a public school in the city of Porto Alegre/Brazil. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular fitness (MF), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and percentage of body fat were evaluated. Blood samples were collected to determine leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. CMRF was defined by the z score sum of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Results

The association between CRF with CMRF (Indirect effect (IE) = − 0.0005; CI − 0.0010 to − 0.0002) and leptin (IE = − 0.0116; CI − 0.0185 to − 0.0062) is influenced by adiposity. The association between MF and CMRF (IE: − 0.0991; CI − 0.1971 to − 0.0217), leptin (IE: − 3.0251; CI − 4.2660 to − 2.0956) and CRP (IE: − 0.3590; CI − 0.6903 to − 0.0981) were also influenced by adiposity. Furthermore, the relationship between CRF and CMRF (β = 0.0001; p = 0.04) and leptin (β = 0.0008; p = 0.02), as well as between MF and CMRF (β = 0.01; p = 0.02) varied according to adiposity level.

Conclusion

Adiposity exert an essential role in the relationship of physical fitness with CMRF, adipocytokines and inflammation in children. This findings support the key role of adiposity, indicating that beyond physical fitness increases, intervention programs should also focus on decreasing adiposity in children.

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Abbreviations

CRP:

C-reactive protein

CRF:

Cardiorespiratory fitness

MF:

Muscular fitness

BMI:

Body mass index

PROESP-Br:

Projeto Esporte Brasil

HDL-C:

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

HOMA-IR:

Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Brazilian National Council for Research and Technological Development under Grant 401969/2016-9/ Universal Announcement; Foundation for Science and Technology under Grant SFRH/BSAB/142983/2018 and UID/DTP/00617/2019; Coordination of Superior Level Staff Improvement.

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Correspondence to Caroline Brand.

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This study was conducted in accordance to the Helsinki Declaration for Human Studies of 1964, and approved by The Ethics and Research Committee of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (2014997).

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Written informed assent and consent was obtained from the child and their parents/guardians respectively.

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Brand, C., Gaya, A.C.A., Dias, A.F. et al. The role of adiposity in the relationship between physical fitness with cardiometabolic risk factors, adipocytokines and inflammation in children. Sport Sci Health (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00662-2

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Keywords

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Muscular fitness
  • Obesity
  • Cardiometabolic health