Aerobic and anaerobic threshold determined by specific test in judo is not correlated with general test

  • Paulo Azevedo
  • João Carlos Oliveira
  • Alessandro Zagatto
  • Paulo Eduardo Pereira
  • Sergio Eduardo Andrade Perez
Original Article


The purposes of this study were to compare and correlate the aerobic threshold (THaer), and anaerobic threshold (THanaer) measured during a new single judo-specific incremental test and treadmill test for aerobic demand evaluation. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7 cm; the fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo mimicking the Uchi-komi drills and on the treadmill in different days. There was a difference between specific and general THaer (P = 0.0006) as well as a weak correlation for THaer (r = 0.32; R2 = 0.1; P = 0.2) and THanaer (r = − 0.31; R2 = 0.1; P = 0.12). When correlation was applied to normalized data (percentage of peak load), we observed moderate correlation for THaer (r = 0.76; R2 = 0.58; P = 0.027), but the same result was not observed for THanaer. We conclude that there is a need for THaer and THanaer evaluation through a specific test for Judo.


Anaerobic threshold Martial art Sport 



The authors would like to thank the participants in this investigation who made this work possible and the English revision made by Carmen Andrea Perez.

Author contributions

PA wrote and made the statistical approach; JCO, AZ and SEAP conceived, designed the experiments and collected the data; PEP reviewed and made the intellectual contribution.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Human Ethics Committee of the Federal University of São Carlos and with the Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    Azevedo P, Pithon-Curi T, Zagatto AM, Oliveira J, Perez S (2014) Maximal lactate steady state in Judo. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 4(2):132–136PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burger-Mendonca M, de Oliveira JC, Cardoso JR, Bielavsky M, Azevedo P (2015) Changes in blood lactate concentrations during taekwondo combat simulation. J Exerc Rehabil 11(5):255–258. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    da Mota GR, Magalhães CG, Azevedo P, Ide BN, Lopes CR, Castardeli E, Neto Barbosa O, Marocolo Junior M, Baldissera V (2011) Lactate threshold in taekwondo through specifics tests. JEPonline 14(3):60–66Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Franchini E, Del Vecchio FB, Matsushigue KA, Artioli GG (2011) Physiological profiles of elite judo athletes. Sports Med 41(2):147–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Franchini E, Artioli GG, Brito CJ (2013) Judo combat: time-motion analysis and physiology. Int J Perform Anal Sport 13(3):624–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Franchini E, Nunes AV, Moraes JM, Del Vecchio FB (2007) Physical fitness and anthropometrical profile of the Brazilian male judo team. J Physiol Anthropol 26(2):59–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Almansba R, Franchini E, Sterkowiczc S (2007) An Uchi-komi with load, a physiological approach of a new special judo test proposal. Sci Sports 22:216–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Azevedo PHSM, Drigo AJ, Carvalho MCGA, Oliveira JC, Nunes JED, Baldissera V, Perez SEA (2007) Determination of judo endurance performance using the Uchi-Komi technique and an adapted lactate minimum test. J Sports Sci Med 6(CSSI-2):10–14PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blais L, Trilles F, Lacouture P (2007) Validation of a specific machine to the strength training of judokas. J Strength Cond Res 21(2):409–412. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Azevedo PHSM, Drigo AJ, Oliveira PR, Carvalho MCGA, Sabino M Jr (2004) A systematization of the training period of the judo athlete Mario Sabino: a case study on the year 2003. Rev Bras Cienc Esporte 26(1):73–86Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Drigo AJ, Amorim AR, Kokubun E (1994) Avaliação do condicionamento físico em judocas através do lactato sanguíneo. Rev Bras Cienc Mov Simpósio Internacional de Ciências do Esporte. CELAFISCS, São Paulo, p 156Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Azevedo PH, Drigo AJ, Carvalho MC, Oliveira JC, Nunes JE, Baldissera V, Perez SE (2007) Determination of judo endurance performance using the uchi-komi technique and an adapted lactate minimum test. J Sports Sci Med 6(CSSI-2):10–14PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Taylor AW, Brassard L (1981) A physiological profile of the Canadian Judo Team. J Sports Med 21:160–164Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Papoti M, Vitório R, Araújo GG, Silva ASR, Santhiago V, Martins LEB, Cunha SA, Gobatto CA (2009) Determination of force corresponding to maximal lactate steady state in tethered swimming. Int J Exerc Sci 2(4):269–279PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones AM, Doust JH (1996) A 1% treadmill grade most accurately reflects the energetic cost of outdoor running. J Sports Sci 14(4):321–327. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Azevedo PHSM, Oliveira JC, Simões HG, Baldissera V, Perez SEA (2010) Oxygen uptake kinetics and threshold time at the vVO2max: comparison between men and women. Rev Bras Med Esporte 16(4):278–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bhambhani Y, Singh M (1985) Ventilatory thresholds during a graded exercise test. Respiration 47(2):120–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Santos L, Gonzalez V, Iscar M, Brime JI, Fernandez-Rio J, Egocheaga J, Rodriguez B, Montoliu MA (2010) A new individual and specific test to determine the aerobic-anaerobic transition zone (Santos test) in competitive judokas. J Strength Cond Res 24(9):2419–2428. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bentley DJ, Newell J, Bishop D (2007) Incremental exercise test design and analysis: implications for performance diagnostics in endurance athletes. Sports Med 37(7):575–586CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Franchini E, Takito MY, Lima JRP, Haddad S, Kiss MAPDM, Regazzini M, Böhme MTS (1998) Características fisiológicas em testes laboratoriais e resposta da concentração de lactato sanguíneo em três lutas em judocas das classes juvenil-A, junior e sênior. Rev Paul Educ Física 12(1):5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Girard O, Chevalier R, Leveque F, Micallef JP, Millet GP (2006) Specific incremental field test for aerobic fitness in tennis. Br J Sports Med 40(9):791–796. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sterkowicz S, Zuchowicz A, Kubica R (1999) Levels of anaerobic and aerobic capacity indices and results for the special judo fitness test in judo competitors. J Hum Kinet 2:115–135Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zagatto AM, Papoti M, Gobatto CA (2009) Comparison between specific and conventional ergometers in the aerobic capacity determination in table tennis players. Rev Bras Med Esporte 15(3):204–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Girard O, Sciberras P, Habrard M, Hot P, Chevalier R, Millet GP (2005) Specific incremental test in elite squash players. Br J Sports Med 39(12):921–926. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thomas SG, Cox MH, LeGal YM, Verde TJ, Smith HK (1989) Physiological profiles of the Canadian National Judo Team. Can J Sport Sci 14(3):142–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tumilty D, Hahn A, Telford RD (1986) A physiological profile of well-trained male judo players, with proposals for training. Excel 2(4):12–14Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dekerle J, Baron B, Dupont L, Vanvelcenaher J, Pelayo P (2003) Maximal lactate steady state, respiratory compensation threshold and critical power. Eur J Appl Physiol 89(3–4):281–288. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wasserman K, Whipp BJ, Koyl SN, Beaver WL (1973) Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise. J Appl Physiol 35(2):236–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Green JM, Crews TR, Bosak AM, Peveler WW (2003) A comparison of respiratory compensation thresholds of anaerobic competitors, aerobic competitors and untrained subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 90(5–6):608–613. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paulo Azevedo
    • 1
    • 4
    • 6
  • João Carlos Oliveira
    • 2
    • 7
  • Alessandro Zagatto
    • 3
  • Paulo Eduardo Pereira
    • 4
    • 6
  • Sergio Eduardo Andrade Perez
    • 5
  1. 1.Human Movement Science DepartmentFederal University of São PauloSantosBrazil
  2. 2.Physical Education DepartmentHermínio Ometto UniversityArarasBrazil
  3. 3.Physical Education DepartmentUNESPBauruBrazil
  4. 4.Group of Studies and Research in Exercise PhysiologyFederal University of São PauloSantosBrazil
  5. 5.Physiological Science DepartmentFederal University of São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil
  6. 6.Human Movement Science and RehabilitationFederal University of São PauloSantosBrazil
  7. 7.College of Health SciencesUniversity Center Hermínio Ometto de ArarasArarasBrazil

Personalised recommendations