Advertisement

Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 193–199 | Cite as

Running fatiguing protocol affects peak torque joint angle and peak torque differently in hamstrings vs. quadriceps

  • Giuseppe Coratella
  • Eloisa Limonta
  • Emiliano Cé
  • Stefano Longo
  • Angela Valentina Bisconti
  • Angela Montaruli
  • Federico Schena
  • Fabio Esposito
Original Article
  • 86 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a running fatiguing protocol on the peak torque joint angle and the peak torque in hamstrings vs. quadriceps.

Methods

Twenty-one male runners underwent a running fatiguing protocol consisting of 40 min at a speed corresponding at first ventilatory threshold. Before and after the fatiguing protocol, isokinetic concentric and eccentric hamstrings and concentric quadriceps peak torque was measured at 60 and 300 deg s−1. The peak torque joint angle (i.e. the angle at which the peak torque was exerted) was recorded. The conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio and the functional Hecc:Qconc ratio were also calculated.

Results

The peak torque joint angle increased (i.e. shifted toward shorter muscle length) in hamstrings in eccentric at 60 deg s−1 (ES = 1.35) and at 300 deg s−1 (ES = 0.71) and in concentric modality at 300 deg s−1 (ES = 0.50) but not at 60 deg s−1 (ES = 0.23). No change occurred in quadriceps at 60 deg s−1 (ES = 0.15) and 300 deg s−1 (ES = 0.20). Peak torque deteriorated in both hamstrings and quadriceps, irrespective of the testing modality (ES 0.95–1.90) Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio decreased at 60 deg s−1 (ES = 0.74) and 300 deg s−1 (ES = 0.85). No change in conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio occurred at 60 deg s−1 (ES = 0.12) and 300 deg s−1 (ES = 0.14).

Conclusion

The fatigue-induced changes in peak torque joint angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps and the simultaneous decrements in the functional Hecc:Qconc ratio may point a reduced hamstrings resistive capacity, with implications for hamstrings strain injury risk.

Keywords

Isokinetic Concentric Eccentric Runners Fatigue 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no conflict of interests.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

All the participants provided written consent.

References

  1. 1.
    McKean KA, Manson NA, Stanish WD (2006) Musculoskeletal injury in the masters runners. Clin J Sport Med 16:149–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hägglund M, Waldén M, Ekstrand J (2013) Risk factors for lower extremity muscle injury in professional soccer. Am J Sports Med 41:327–335.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512470634 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ekstrand J, Waldén M, Hägglund M (2016) Hamstring injuries have increased by 4% annually in men’s professional football, since 2001: a 13-year longitudinal analysis of the UEFA Elite Club injury study. Br J Sports Med 50:731–737.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095359 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Walden M (2011) Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the UEFA injury study. Br J Sports Med 45:553–558.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.060582 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mero A, Komi PV, Gregor RJ (1992) Biomechanics of sprint running. A review. Sports Med 13:376–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Croisier J-L, Ganteaume S, Binet J et al (2008) Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med 36:1469–1475.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546508316764 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Trolle M et al (1995) Isokinetic hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio: influence from joint angular velocity, gravity correction and contraction mode. Acta Physiol Scand 154:421–427.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1995.tb09927.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rahnama N, Reilly T, Lees A, Graham-Smith P (2003) Muscle fatigue induced by exercise simulating the work rate of competitive soccer. J Sports Sci 21:933–942.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000140428 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bigland-Ritchie B, Woods JJ (1984) Changes in muscle contractile properties and neural control during human muscular fatigue. Muscle Nerve 7:691–699.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.880070902 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boccia G, Dardanello D, Rinaldo N et al (2015) Electromyographic manifestations of fatigue correlate with pulmonary function, 6-minute walk test, and time to exhaustion in copd. Respir Care 60:1295–1302.  https://doi.org/10.4187/respcare.04138 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boccia G, Coratella G, Dardanello D et al (2016) Severe COPD alters muscle fiber conduction velocity during knee extensors fatiguing contraction. COPD J Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis 13:583–588.  https://doi.org/10.3109/15412555.2016.1139561 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boccia G, Dardanello D, Beretta-Piccoli M et al (2016) Muscle fiber conduction velocity and fractal dimension of EMG during fatiguing contraction of young and elderly active men. Physiol Meas 37:162–174.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/37/1/162 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boccia G, Dardanello D, Coratella G et al (2015) Differences in age-related fiber atrophy between vastii muscles of active subjects: a multichannel surface EMG study. Physiol Meas 36:1591–1600.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/36/7/1591 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Coratella G, Bellini V, Schena F (2016) Shift of optimum angle after concentric-only exercise performed at long vs. short muscle length. Sport Sci Health 12:85–90.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-016-0258-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coratella G, Bellin G, Beato M, Schena F (2015) Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps. J Sports Sci 33:1276–1282.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.986185 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Delextrat A, Gregory J, Cohen D (2010) The use of the functional H:Q ratio to assess fatigue in soccer. Int J Sports Med 31:192–197.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1243642 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cohen DD, Zhao B, Okwera B et al (2014) Angle-specific eccentric hamstring fatigue following simulated soccer. Int J Sports Physiol Perform.  https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0088 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hawkins RD, Hulse MA, Wilkinson C et al (2001) The association football medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football. Br J Sports Med 35:43–47CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Small K, McNaughton LR, Greig M et al (2009) Soccer fatigue, sprinting and hamstring injury risk. Int J Sports Med 30:573–578.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1202822 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pinniger GJ, Steele JR, Groeller H (2000) Does fatigue induced by repeated dynamic efforts affect hamstring muscle function? Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:647–653CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hanon C, Thépaut-Mathieu C, Vandewalle H (2005) Determination of muscular fatigue in elite runners. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:118–125.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1276-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Serpiello FR, McKenna MJ, Coratella G et al (2014) Futsal and continuous exercise induce similar changes in specific skeletal muscle signalling proteins. Int J Sports Med 35:863–870.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1367045 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coratella G, Bertinato L (2015) Isoload vs isokinetic eccentric exercise: a direct comparison of exercise-induced muscle damage and repeated bout effect. Sport Sci Health 11:87–96.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-014-0213-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coratella G, Milanese C, Schena F (2015) Unilateral eccentric resistance training: a direct comparison between isokinetic and dynamic constant external resistance modalities. Eur J Sport Sci 15:720–726.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2015.1060264 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coratella G, Milanese C, Schena F (2015) Cross-education effect after unilateral eccentric-only isokinetic vs dynamic constant external resistance training. Sport Sci Health 11:329–335.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-015-0244-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borg GA (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:377–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coratella G, Beato M, Schena F (2016) The specificity of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test for recreational soccer players is independent of their intermittent running ability. Res Sport Med 24:363–374.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2016.1222279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J (2009) Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sport Exerc 41:3–13.  https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maas E, De Bie J, Vanfleteren R et al (2017) Novice runners show greater changes in kinematics with fatigue compared with competitive runners. Sport Biomech.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2017.1347193 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Woods C, Hawkins RD, Maltby S et al (2004) The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of hamstring injuries. Br J Sports Med 38:36–41CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abbruzzese G, Morena M, Spadavecchia L, Schieppati M (1994) Response of arm flexor muscles to magnetic and electrical brain stimulation during shortening and lengthening tasks in man. J Physiol 481(Pt 2):499–507CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nardone A, Romanò C, Schieppati M (1989) Selective recruitment of high-threshold human motor units during voluntary isotonic lengthening of active muscles. J Physiol 409:451–471CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duchateau J, Enoka RM (2008) Neural control of shortening and lengthening contractions: influence of task constraints. J Physiol 586:5853–5864.  https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2008.160747 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Enoka RM (1996) Eccentric contraction require unique activation strategies by the nervous system. J Appl Physiol 81:2339–2346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Garrett WE, Califf JC, Bassett FH (1984) Histochemical correlates of hamstring injuries. Am J Sports Med 12:98–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Coratella G, Schena F (2016) Eccentric resistance training increases and retains maximal strength, muscle endurance and hypertrophy in trained men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 41:1184–1189.  https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0321 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brughelli M, Cronin J (2007) Altering the length-tension relationship with eccentric exercise: implications for performance and injury. Sports Med 37:807–826CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Coratella G, Chemello A, Schena F (2016) Muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced-eccentric squat exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 56:1540–1546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    van der Horst N, Smits D-W, Petersen J et al (2015) The preventive effect of the nordic hamstring exercise on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players. Am J Sports Med 43:1316–1323.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515574057 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences for HealthUniversity of MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Neurological, Biomedical and Movement ScienceUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly

Personalised recommendations