Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 19–24 | Cite as

Aerobic capacities, anaerobic power, and anthropometric characteristics of elite female canoe polo players based on playing position

  • Mohsen Sheykhlouvand
  • Scott C. Forbes
Original Article



To determine the aerobic capacities, anaerobic power, and anthropometric characteristics of elite female canoe polo players. A secondary purpose was to investigate positional differences between goalkeepers (GKs), flat 3 defenders (FDFs), and chase defenders (CHDFs).


Twenty-one elite female canoe polo players (age 26.8 ± 2.1 years; height 166.9 ± 5.2 cm; body mass 61.4 ± 7.1 kg; and percent body fat 21.0 ± 3.8%) volunteered. Anthropometric variables, peak oxygen uptake (\( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} \)), ventilatory threshold (VT), anaerobic peak power output (PPO), and mean power output (MPO) were determined.


\( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{peak}}}} \) was 40.88 ± 4.0 ml kg−1 min−1 or 2.50 ± 0.29 l min−1, VT was 79.1 ± 8.6 \( \% \dot{V}O_{2peak} \), PPO was 348.7 ± 32.1 W, 5.66 ± 0.64 W kg−1, and MPO was 266.5 ± 29.4 W, 4.37 ± 0.56 W kg−1. CHDFs and FDFs had significantly (p < 0.05) greater relative \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} \) (19.5 and 15.0%, respectively) compared to GKs. GKs were significantly (p < 0.05) taller than CHDFs (6.3%) and FDFs (4.8%).


Elite female canoe polo players have well-developed oxidative and non-oxidative energy systems, as well as low percent body fat. Positional differences demonstrated that CHDFs and FDFs had significantly higher aerobic power compared to GKs; however, GKs were significantly taller. These results may assist the coach or sport scientist to construct and implement tailored training programs and may be beneficial for talent identification.


Paddling Female canoe polo Oxygen consumption Peak power Ventilatory threshold 


\( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} \)

Peak oxygen uptake

\( v\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} \)

Velocity at \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} \)

\( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{ 2} /{\text{HR}} \)

Oxygen pulse (O2 pulse)

\( {\text{HR@}}\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} \)

Heart rate at \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} \)


Ventilatory threshold


Peak power output


Mean power output


Bench press


Prone bench pull


Body mass index


Reciprocal ponderal index


Goal keepers


Flat 3 defenders


Chase defenders


Analysis of variance


Standard deviation


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All methods performed in the study were in accordance with ethical standards of the national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


No external financial support was received for this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport SciencesUniversity of GuilanRashtIran
  2. 2.Department of Exercise Physiology, Ardabil BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArdabilIran
  3. 3.Human KineticsOkanagan CollegePentictonCanada
  4. 4.Education and Research CommitteeIran National Canoeing, Rowing and Sailing FederationTehranIran

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