In vivo Cell Tracking Using Non-invasive Imaging of Iron Oxide-Based Particles with Particular Relevance for Stem Cell-Based Treatments of Neurological and Cardiac Disease

Abstract

Stem cell-based therapeutics is a rapidly developing field associated with a number of clinical challenges. One such challenge lies in the implementation of methods to track stem cells and stem cell-derived cells in experimental animal models and in the living patient. Here, we provide an overview of cell tracking in the context of cardiac and neurological disease, focusing on the use of iron oxide-based particles (IOPs) visualized in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss the types of IOPs available for such tracking, their advantages and limitations, approaches for labeling cells with IOPs, biological interactions and effects of IOPs at the molecular and cellular levels, and MRI-based and associated approaches for in vivo and histological visualization. We conclude with reviews of the literature on IOP-based cell tracking in cardiac and neurological disease, covering both preclinical and clinical studies.

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Acknowledgments

All of the authors are members of the COST action 16122, Biomaterials and advanced physical techniques for regenerative cardiology and neurology (BIONECA), which has supported seminars and workshops that have served as the springboard for composing this review.

Funding

JCG and JLB are supported by the Norwegian Research Council (grants 230000, 189374, 229654) and the Southeastern Norway Health Authority (grants 2011035, 2015045, 2015102, 2014119). MP and JL are supported by ARRS grants J7-7424, Z4-8229 and P1-0055. DM is supported by the Croatian Science Foundation (IP-2016-06-9451) and co-financed by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund, Operational Programme Competitiveness and Cohesion, grant agreement no. KK.01.1.1.01.0007, CoRE – Neuro.

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Glover, J.C., Aswendt, M., Boulland, JL. et al. In vivo Cell Tracking Using Non-invasive Imaging of Iron Oxide-Based Particles with Particular Relevance for Stem Cell-Based Treatments of Neurological and Cardiac Disease. Mol Imaging Biol 22, 1469–1488 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11307-019-01440-4

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Key words

  • Iron oxide
  • Stem cell
  • Cardiomyocytes
  • Neural progenitor cells
  • MRI
  • MION
  • SPIO
  • USPIO
  • MPIO
  • MPI
  • Micro-CT