Molecular Imaging and Biology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 352–353 | Cite as

Letter to the Editor re: Increased Expression of Translocator Protein (TSPO) Marks Pro-inflammatory Microglia but Does Not Predict Neurodegeneration

  • Tina Notter
  • Urs Meyer
Letter to the Editor


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Beckers L, Ory D, Geric I et al (2017) Increased expression of translocator protein (TSPO) marks pro-inflammatory microglia but does not predict neurodegeneration. Mol Imaging Biol 20:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu GJ, Middleton RJ, Hatty CR, Kam WWY, Chan R, Pham T, Harrison-Brown M, Dodson E, Veale K, Banati RB (2014) The 18 kDa translocator protein, microglia and neuroinflammation. Brain Pathol 24(6):631–653. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gut P, Zweckstetter M, Banati RB (2015) Lost in translocation: the functions of the 18-kD translocator protein. Trends Endocrinol Metab 26(7):349–356. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vivash L, O'Brien TJ (2016) Imaging microglial activation with TSPO PET: lighting up neurologic diseases? J Nucl Med 57(2):165–168. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Janssen B, Vugts DJ, Funke U, Molenaar GT, Kruijer PS, van Berckel BNM, Lammertsma AA, Windhorst AD (2016) Imaging of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke: recent developments in positron emission tomography. Biochim Biophys Acta 1862(3):425–441. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sandiego CM, Gallezot JD, Pittman B, Nabulsi N, Lim K, Lin SF, Matuskey D, Lee JY, O’Connor KC, Huang Y, Carson RE, Hannestad J, Cosgrove KP (2015) Imaging robust microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide administration in humans with PET. Proc Nat Acad Sci (USA) 112(40):12468–12473. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ory D, Planas A, Dresselaers T, Gsell W, Postnov A, Celen S, Casteels C, Himmelreich U, Debyser Z, van Laere K, Verbruggen A, Bormans G (2015) PET imaging of TSPO in a rat model of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of lipopolysaccharide. Nucl Med Biol 42(10):753–761. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ory D, Postnov A, Koole M, Celen S, de Laat B, Verbruggen A, van Laere K, Bormans G, Casteels C (2016) Quantification of TSPO overexpression in a rat model of local neuroinflammation induced by intracerebral injection of LPS by the use of [(18)F]DPA-714 PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 43(1):163–172. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dickens AM, Vainio S, Marjamaki P, Johansson J, Lehtiniemi P, Rokka J, Rinne J, Solin O, Haaparanta-Solin M, Jones PA, Trigg W, Anthony DC, Airas L (2014) Detection of microglial activation in an acute model of neuroinflammation using PET and radiotracers 11C-(R)-PK11195 and 18F-GE-180. J Nucl Med 55(3):466–472. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hannestad J, Gallezot JD, Schafbauer T, Lim K, Kloczynski T, Morris ED, Carson RE, Ding YS, Cosgrove KP (2012) Endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation activates microglia: [11C]PBR28 positron emission tomography in nonhuman primates. NeuroImage 63(1):232–239. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benavides J, Fage D, Carter C, Scatton B (1987) Peripheral type benzodiazepine binding sites are a sensitive indirect index of neuronal damage. Brain Res 421(1-2):167–172. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miyazawa N, Diksic M, Yamamoto Y (1995) Chronological study of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in the rat brain stab wounds using [3H] PK-11195 as a marker for gliosis. Acta Neurochir 137(3-4):207–216. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Banati RB, Myers R, Kreutzberg GW (1997) PK ('peripheral benzodiazepine')—binding sites in the CNS indicate early and discrete brain lesions: microautoradiographic detection of [3H]PK11195 binding to activated microglia. J Neurocytol 26(2):77–82. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wei XH, Wei X, Chen FY, Zang Y, Xin WJ, Pang RP, Chen Y, Wang J, Li YY, Shen KF, Zhou LJ, Liu XG (2013) The upregulation of translocator protein (18 kDa) promotes recovery from neuropathic pain in rats. J Neurosci 33(4):1540–1551. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arlicot N, Tronel C, Bodard S, Garreau L, de la Crompe B, Vandevelde I, Guilloteau D, Antier D, Chalon S (2014) Translocator protein (18 kDa) mapping with [125I]-CLINDE in the quinolinic acid rat model of excitotoxicity: a longitudinal comparison with microglial activation, astrogliosis, and neuronal death. Mol Imaging 13:4–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wolf SA, Boddeke HW, Kettenmann H (2017) Microglia in physiology and disease. Annu Rev Physiol 79(1):619–643. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gomez-Nicola D, Perry VH (2015) Microglial dynamics and role in the healthy and diseased brain: a paradigm of functional plasticity. Neuroscientist 21(2):169–184. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Verheijden S, Beckers L, Casazza A, Butovsky O, Mazzone M, Baes M (2015) Identification of a chronic non-neurodegenerative microglia activation state in a mouse model of peroxisomal beta-oxidation deficiency. Glia 63(9):1606–1620. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Notter T, Coughlin JM, Gschwind T et al (2018) Translational evaluation of translocator protein as a marker of neuroinflammation in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 23:323–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cosenza-Nashat M, Zhao ML, Suh HS, Morgan J, Natividad R, Morgello S, Lee SC (2009) Expression of the translocator protein of 18 kDa by microglia, macrophages and astrocytes based on immunohistochemical localization in abnormal human brain. Neuropath Appl Neuro 35(3):306–328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ji B, Maeda J, Sawada M, Ono M, Okauchi T, Inaji M, Zhang MR, Suzuki K, Ando K, Staufenbiel M, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VMY, Higuchi M, Suhara T (2008) Imaging of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor expression as biomarkers of detrimental versus beneficial glial responses in mouse models of Alzheimer’s and other CNS pathologies. J Neurosci 28(47):12255–12267. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lavisse S, Guillermier M, Herard AS, Petit F, Delahaye M, van Camp N, Ben Haim L, Lebon V, Remy P, Dolle F, Delzescaux T, Bonvento G, Hantraye P, Escartin C (2012) Reactive astrocytes overexpress TSPO and are detected by TSPO positron emission tomography imaging. J Neurosci 32(32):10809–10818. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Notter T, Coughlin JM, Sawa A, Meyer U (2018) Reconceptualization of translocator protein as a biomarker of neuroinflammation in psychiatry. Mol Psychiatry 23:36–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© World Molecular Imaging Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Pharmacology and ToxicologyUniversity of Zurich-VetsuisseZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Neuroscience Centre ZurichUniversity of Zurich and ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations