Table 13 Innovation management practices identified in the scoping review

From: Innovation management practices: review and guidance for future research in SMEs

Category Practice number Description of the practice Freq. % References
1. Benchmarking and business intelligence 1 Competition-informed pricing: checking competitors’ current price strategy 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
2 Checking the degree of competition on the market and estimating the strength of competitors to react and the competitive advantages of competitors on the market 2 0.75 Rahman et al. (2015)
Gloet and Samson (2014)
3 Executing technological benchmarking and competitive technology intelligence 4 1.50 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Boly et al. (2014)
4 Using benchmarking and scenarios for external business intelligence 2 0.75 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Quadros et al. (2017)
5 Using internal and external sources of data for business intelligence 3 1.12 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
  Sub-total 12 4.49  
2. Marketing activities and identification of market needs to innovate 6 Opening new markets abroad 1 0.37 Valmohammadi (2012)
7 Creating new domestic target groups 1 0.37 Valmohammadi (2012)
8 Executing punctual and systematic marketing prospection 2 0.75 Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
9 Developing marketing efforts to launch and disseminate innovations 2 0.75 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
10 Realizing presentations, conferences and lobbying to launch and diffuse innovations 2 0.75 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
11 Having a stated and working marketing innovation strategy 1 0.37 Pelser (2014)
12 Promoting the effective participation of customers in launching and disseminating innovations 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
13 Performing market research or viability studies because innovation is profoundly associated with a previously identified demand 5 1.87 Vilha and Quadros (2012)
Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Pires et al. (2013)
De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Boly et al. (2014)
14 Focusing on achieving a balanced portfolio of competitive advantages and innovations for which customers are willing to pay 3 1.12 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
  Sub-total 18 6.74  
3. Idea generation techniques 15 Promoting idea generation as part of innovation process management 2 0.75 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Boly et al. (2014)
16 Using multifunctional brainstorming to generate new ideas 2 0.75 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
17 Conducting focus groups 2 0.75 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
18 Performing generation and spontaneous search for ideas 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
19 Using ideation support and using an idea database to manage ideas 3 1.12 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
20 Selecting ideas based on the criteria of market viability and the technological situation of the company 2 0.75 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
21 Selecting ideas based on the criteria of alignment of interests and the strategic vision of the company 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
22 Selecting ideas based on the criteria of shareholders 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
23 Establishing idea generation assessment processes 2 0.75 Quadros et al. (2017)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
24 Capturing ideas from external agents (customers and innovation intermediaries) 4 1.50 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Frishammar et al. (2018)
De Sousa and Marina (2015)
25 Using forecasting tools and techniques to imagine future threats and to construct scenarios 4 1.50 Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
26 Analysing lead users 4 1.50 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Gloet and Samson (2014)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
27 Reviewing consumption tendencies (ethnographic research) 2 0.75 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
  Sub-total 30 11.24  
4. Definition of innovation strategies, objectives and processes 28 Assigning a high level of importance to the innovation strategy of the company to achieve the success of the process 1 0.37 Giles and Cormican (2014)
29 Having a stated, articulated, explicit and prioritized innovation strategy 4 1.50 Aas et al. (2015)
Pelser (2014)
Quadros et al. (2017)
Gloet and Samson (2014)
30 Aligning and integrating the corporate strategy with the innovation’s portfolio 4 1.50 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Boly et al. (2014)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
Aas et al. (2015)
31 Defining innovation goals, objectives and targets 2 0.75 Pelser (2014)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
32 Defining a process of innovation management in the company to guarantee the effective development of innovation (ideation, evaluation, selection and monitoring of innovation) 4 1.50 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Giles and Cormican (2014)
Quadros et al. (2017)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
  Sub-total 15 5.62  
5. Exploitation, exploration and knowledge management 33 Capturing organizational knowledge and cultivating staff to provide system-wide thinking and specialized knowledge 3 1.12 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
34 Acquiring knowledge internally: viewing knowledge as a competitive advantage to be gained from inside the company 3 1.12 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
35 Acquiring knowledge externally: viewing knowledge as a competitive advantage to be gained from outside the company 4 1.50 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
Gloet and Samson (2014)
36 Performing R&D activities: tasks related to fundamental knowledge acquisition and creation 1 0.37 Boly et al. (2014)
37 Managing a suitable collective learning environment 1 0.37 Boly et al. (2014)
38 Exploitation: using existing knowledge and seeking to deepen it to solve specific problems 1 0.37 Zimmer et al. (2016)
  Sub-total 13 4.87  
6. Characteristics of the organization and resources for the development of innovation 39 The organization is willing to implement changes effectively to take calculated risks 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
40 Implementing a participatory management model 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
41 Implementing a biological management model 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
42 Decision making is decentralized 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
43 Use-oriented and result-oriented business models 1 0.37 Frishammar et al. (2018)
44 Implementing structuring of physical, technological and knowledge-based consortiums focused on solving complex problems and generating new products 1 0.37 Pires et al. (2013)
45 Investing in technology 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
46 Promoting systematic resources for innovation 4 1.50 Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Giles and Cormican (2014)
De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Aas et al. (2015)
47 Separating the product improvement budget from the R&D budget 1 0.37 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
48 Financing innovation projects with internal resources 1 0.37 Vilha and Quadros (2012)
49 Financing innovation projects with external resources (R + D + i development agencies, partners, tax incentives and laws) 1 0.37 Vilha and Quadros (2012)
50 Making portfolio decisions based on financial estimates 1 0.37 Aas et al. (2015)
51 Developing negotiation maturity and focalization 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
52 Viewing innovation as an embedded part of daily work and turning innovation into a company-wide task 2 0.75 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Frishammar et al. (2018)
53 Developing tasks to allocate and manage competences for the success of the innovation process 2 0.75 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Boly et al. (2014)
  Sub-total 20 7.49  
7. Practices related to human talent management for innovation 54 Using cross functional innovation groups (cross-functional teaming/cross-training specialists) 7 2.62 Rahman et al. (2015)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
Aas et al. (2015)
55 Change, recruitment and selection of personnel focus on innovation, and employees are highly skilled. 2 0.75 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Valmohammadi (2012)
56 Managers emphasize working efficiency and acting effectively, and every employee and department must compete with its peers for better efficiency 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
57 Managers set clear goals and ask employees to focus on meeting the goals 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
58 Leaders are role models for innovative behaviour 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
59 Employees are loyal to one another, and teamwork is emphasized 2 0.75 Rahman et al. (2015)
Gloet and Samson (2014)
60 Promoting organizational climate, organizational forms for innovation activities, decision-making and human resources management practices aimed at innovation 4 1.50 Quadros et al. (2017)
Giles and Cormican (2014)
Rahman et al. (2015)
Boly et al. (2014)
61 Open communication channels for all functions and ranks in the organization and increasing the influence of downstream functions in upstream decisions 3 1.12 Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
Rahman et al. (2015)
62 The firm is stable and offers job security to employees 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
63 Top management aims to provide moral support for innovation process participants, and managers treat all staff as members of a big family 2 0.75 Boly et al. (2014)
Rahman et al. (2015)
64 Providing new skills for the company within and outside itself 4 1.50 Zimmer et al. (2016)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Frishammar et al. (2018)
Valmohammadi (2012)
  Sub-total 28 10.49  
8. Collaboration, strategic alliances, and open innovation 65 Establishing strategic alliances, collaborating with outside partners, and participating in cooperation networks 6 2.25 Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Zimmer et al. (2016)
Gloet and Samson (2014)
Pires et al. (2013)
Frishammar et al. (2018)
De Sousa and Marina (2015)
66 Developing projects with external equipment 3 1.12 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
67 Collaborating with universities in scientific or technological activities 4 1.50 Valmohammadi (2012)
Zimmer et al. (2016)
Pires et al. (2013)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
68 Collaborating with suppliers to obtain technological knowledge and project management 4 1.50 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Pires et al. (2013)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
69 Top management undertakes tasks concerning the management of the networks in which the company operates 3 1.12 Boly et al. (2014)
Pires et al. (2013)
Quadros et al. (2017)
70 Performing searches and mobilizing resources through internal R&D, R&D contracting; R&D partnerships and joint ventures 3 1.12 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Quadros et al. (2017)
71 Developing open innovation processes 2 0.75 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Pires et al. (2013)
  Sub-total 25 9.36  
9. Project management 72 Executing systematic, punctual and formal project management and following up on innovative projects 4 1.50 Boly et al. (2014)
Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
73 Strengthening the role of project managers 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
74 Appointing key individuals to execute and develop innovation projects 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
75 Appointing internal teams to execute and develop innovation projects 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
76 Appointing external teams to execute and develop innovation projects 1 0.37 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
77 Using milestone-based project reviews 1 0.37 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
78 Using stage-gate development projects 4 1.50 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Nagano et al. (2014a,
b)
Aas et al. (2015)
79 Using multi-criteria analysis for project portfolio management. 1 0.37 Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
80 Using project management tools for the development and monitoring of projects 3 1.12 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
81 Performing project portfolio management 5 1.87 Boly et al. (2014)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
82 Carrying out follow-up of projects through decision meetings held weekly or biweekly 1 0.37 Vilha and Quadros (2012)
83 Working based on the innovation funnel approach for the sequencing of projects 1 0.37 Vilha and Quadros (2012)
84 Documenting the lessons learned: building online databases with the lessons learned and best-practice templates 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
85 Implementing documentation tools, methodologies and the transfer of the lessons learned 7 2.62 De Sousa and Marina (2015)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
Boly et al. (2014)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
  Sub-total 36 13.48  
10. Implementation of changes or improvements in products and organizational processes. 86 Killing underperforming projects 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
87 Mapping processes to reduce non-value activities 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
88 Shorter time from concept to full-scale delivery of the service and shorter response time to order for existing services 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
89 Reducing the cost of service delivery and reducing the cost of service development 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
90 Reorganization of jobs to reduce hand-offs 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
91 Revising and improving existing products and services (upgraded features) 2 0.75 Rahman et al. (2015)
Valmohammadi (2012)
92 Shorter time for adjustments to complaints 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
93 Easier customer use after purchase 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
94 Increasing the quality of products and the production process 1 0.37 Rahman et al. (2015)
95 Repackaging existing products or services and extending products or services 1 0.37 Valmohammadi (2012)
96 Developing and promoting new products or services or new lines of products or services 4 1.50 Valmohammadi (2012)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
Boly et al. (2014)
97 Making major and rapid changes to existing services 2 0.75 Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
98 Using continuous product/service improvement teams 3 1.12 Gloet and Samson (2014)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
De Sousa and Marina (2015)
99 Measuring compliance with processes, procedures and service development process 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
100 Institutionalizing continuous improvement processes 2 0.75 Rahman et al. (2015)
Boly et al. (2014)
101 Improving the documentation of processes 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
102 Setting standards for the performance of services 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
  Sub-total 35 13.11  
11. Use of technologies in the innovation process 103 Using up-to-date/new technology for new product development and in the process 1 0.37 Valmohammadi (2012)
104 Constructing technology roadmaps of products to execute technology intelligence and monitor technological tendencies (mapping out patents, the Delphi method, forecasting, TRIZ and prospection) 6 2.25 Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Quadros et al. (2017)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
105 Systematically managing the portfolio of technologies 2 0.75 Vilha and Quadros (2012)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
106 Using internal communications via any computer network, for
example, e-mail
3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
107 Using distributed databases online for multiple functions 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
108 Updated information technology systems 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
109 Using common software for process mapping 3 1.12 Rahman et al. (2015)
Taghizadeh et al. (2017a, b)
110 Aligning the business strategy and technology 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
  Sub-total 22 8.24  
12. Formal evaluation of the results of innovation and management of intellectual property 111 Defining a formal process to evaluate the results of innovation (definition and evaluation of metrics, system of success indicators for projects) 6 2.25 Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Nagano et al. (2014a, b)
Pelser (2014)
Tidd and Thuriaux-Alemán (2016)
Vilha and Quadros (2012)
112 Managing the intellectual property derived from the company’s innovation activities 3 1.12 Gavira and Carvalho (2015)
Quadros et al. (2017)
Zimmer et al. (2016)
  Sub-total 9 3.37  
13. Measuring the impact of innovation 113 Measuring environmental impact 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
114 Acquiring new technologies related to the sustainability strategy 1 0.37 Vilha and Quadros (2012)
115 Work proactively to improve our social and community impact 1 0.37 Gloet and Samson (2014)
116 Developing environment-friendly products 1 0.37 Valmohammadi (2012)
  Sub-total 4 1.50  
   Total 267 100.0