Tree Genetics & Genomes

, 14:7 | Cite as

Prospects for increasing yield in macadamia using component traits and genomics

Review
  • 109 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Breeding

Abstract

Selection of candidate cultivars in macadamia requires extensive phenotypic measurements over many years and trials. In particular, yield traits such as nut-in-shell yield and kernel yield are economically vital characteristics and therefore guide the selection process for new cultivars. However, these traits can only be measured in mature trees, resulting in long generation intervals and slow rates of genetic gain. In addition, these traits are expensive to measure. Strategies to reduce the generation interval and increase the intensity of selection include using yield component traits, identification of markers associated with component traits, and genomic selection for yield. Yield component traits that contribute to resource availability for fruit formation include floral and nut characteristics. In this review, these traits will be investigated to estimate their relative importance in macadamia breeding and their heritability and correlations with yield. Furthermore, the usefulness of genome-wide association studies regarding yield component traits will be reviewed. Genetic-based breeding techniques could exploit this information to increase yield gains per breeding cycle and estimate the quantitative nature of yield traits. Genomic selection uses genome-wide molecular markers to predict the phenotype of individuals at an early age before maturity, thereby reducing the cycle time and increasing gain per unit time in plant breeding programmes. This review evaluates the potential for measurement of yield component traits, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection to be employed in the Australian macadamia breeding programme to accelerate gains for nut yield.

Keywords

Nut crop Breeding Perennial Genome-wide association study (GWAS) Genomic selection 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Drs Craig Hardner, Mobashwer Alam, Mark Dieters, Jodi Neal, Chris Menzel, and Robert Henry for their comments. Thanks to two reviewers for helpful comments and suggestions. Thanks also to Todd Fox for illustrations and Nik Nieuwenhuis for technical support.

Data archiving statement

There are no data in this review.

References

  1. Acquaah G (2012) Principles of plant genetics and breeding, Second edn. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118313718 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aliyu O (2006) Phenotypic correlation and path coefficient analysis of nut yield and yield components in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Silvae Genetica 55:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Macadamia Society (2012) Global macadamia production. http://australian-macadamias.org/industry/item/601-issue-five. Accessed 15 Jul 2017
  4. Balding DJ (2006) A tutorial on statistical methods for population association studies. Nat Rev Genet 7(10):781–791.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg1916 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bazzaz FA, Chiariello NR, Coley PD, Pitelka LF (1987) Allocating resources to reproduction and defense. Bioscience 37(1):58–67.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1310178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernardo R (2008) Molecular markers and selection for complex traits in plants: learning from the last 20 years. Crop Sci 48(5):1649.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.03.0131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernardo R, Yu J (2007) Prospects for genomewide selection for quantitative traits in maize. Crop Sci 47(3):1082–1090.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2006.11.0690 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodzon Z (2004) Correlations and heritability of the characters determining the seed yield of the long-raceme alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) J Appl Genet 45:49–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyton S, Hardner C (2002) Phenology of flowering and nut production in macadamia. Acta Hortic 575:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brachi B, Morris GP, Borevitz JO (2011) Genome-wide association studies in plants: the missing heritability is in the field. Genome Biol 12:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell NA, Reece JB (2002) Biology, 6th edition edn. Pearson Education, Inc., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell AJ, Maddox CD, Morris SC (2005) Assessment protocols for nut-borer resistance—macadamia husk hardness 1999–2000. In: McConchie CA (ed) Macadamia improvement by breeding stage 2. Horticulture Australia Limited, Sydney, pp 205–242Google Scholar
  13. Cannell M (1985) Dry matter partitioning in tree crops. In: Cannell MGRJ, Jackson JE (eds) Attributes of trees as crop plants. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntington, pp 160–193Google Scholar
  14. Cantín CM, Gogorcena Y, Moreno MÁ (2010) Phenotypic diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits in peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] breeding progenies. Euphytica 171(2):211–226.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-009-0023-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cao K, Wang L, Zhu G, Fang W, Chen C, Luo J (2012) Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping analyses of peach (Prunus persica) landraces in China. Tree Genet Genomes 8(5):975–990.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-012-0477-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chagné D (2015) Chapter one—whole genome sequencing of fruit tree species. In: Christophe P, Anne-Françoise A-B (eds) Advances in botanical research, vol 74. Academic Press, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  17. Collard BCY, Jahufer MZZ, Brouwer JB, Pang ECK (2005) An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: the basic concepts. Euphytica 142(1-2):169–196.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-005-1681-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cros D, Denis M, Bouvet JM, Sánchez L (2015) Long-term genomic selection for heterosis without dominance in multiplicative traits: case study of bunch production in oil palm. BMC Genomics 16(1):651–668.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1866-9 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crossa J, de los Campos G, Pérez P, Gianola D, Burgueño J, Araus JL, Makumbi D, Singh RP, Dreisigacker S, Yan J, Arief V, Banziger M, Braun H-J (2010) Prediction of genetic values of quantitative traits in plant breeding using pedigree and molecular markers. Genetics 186(2):713–724.  https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.110.118521 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daetwyler HD, Villanueva B, Woolliams JA (2008) Accuracy of predicting the genetic risk of disease using a genome-wide approach. PLoS One 3(10):e3395.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003395 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Denis M, Bouvet J-M (2013) Efficiency of genomic selection with models including dominance effect in the context of Eucalyptus breeding. Tree Genet Genomes 9(1):37–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-012-0528-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Desta ZA, Ortiz R (2014) Genomic selection: genome-wide prediction in plant improvement. Trends Plant Sci 19(9):592–601.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2014.05.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Donald C (1962) In search of yield. J Aust Inst Agric Sci 28:171–178Google Scholar
  24. Druet T, Macleod IM, Hayes BJ (2014) Toward genomic prediction from whole-genome sequence data: impact of sequencing design on genotype imputation and accuracy of predictions. Heredity 112(1):39–47.  https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2013.13 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duvick DN (1984) Genetic contributions to yield gains of U.S. hybrid maize, 1930 to 1980. In: Fehr WR (ed) Genetic contributions to yield gains of five major crop plants. CSSA Special Publication, vol 7. Crop Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 15–47Google Scholar
  26. Eaton G, Kyte T (1978) Yield component analysis in the cranberry. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 103:578–583Google Scholar
  27. Endresen DTF (2010) Predictive association between trait data and ecogeographic data for Nordic barley landraces. Crop Sci 50(6):2418–2430.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2010.03.0174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Erbe M, Hayes BJ, Matukumalli LK, Goswami S, Bowman PJ, Reich CM, Mason BA, Goddard ME (2012) Improving accuracy of genomic predictions within and between dairy cattle breeds with imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism panels. J Dairy Sci 95(7):4114–4129.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5019 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Falconer DS (1989) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 3rd edn. Longman Scientific & Technical, EssexGoogle Scholar
  30. Fraser J, Eaton GW (1983) Applications of yield component analysis to crop research. Field Crops Abstracts 36:787–797Google Scholar
  31. Goddard M (1991) Mapping genes for quantitative traits using linkage disequilibrium. Genet Sel Evol 23:131s–134sCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goddard M (2009) Genomic selection: prediction of accuracy and maximisation of long term response. Genetica 136(2):245–257.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-008-9308-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grattapaglia D (2014) Breeding forest trees by genomic selection: current progress and the way forward. In: Genomics of plant genetic resources. Springer, pp 651–682, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7572-5_26
  34. Grattapaglia D, Resende MD (2011) Genomic selection in forest tree breeding. Tree Genet Genomes 7(2):241–255.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-010-0328-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gross C (1995) Macadamia. Flora Aust 16:419–425Google Scholar
  36. Habier D, Fernando R, Dekkers J (2007) The impact of genetic relationship information on genome-assisted breeding values. Genetics 177(4):2389–2397.  https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.081190 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Hamilton RA, Fukunaga ET (1959) Growing macadamia nuts in Hawaii. Hawaii Agr Expt StaGoogle Scholar
  38. Hamilton RA, Ito PJ (1984) Macadamia nut cultivars recommended for Hawaii. Information text series-College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Cooperative Extension Service (USA)Google Scholar
  39. Hansche PE (1983) Response to selection. In: Moore JN, Janick J (eds) Methods in fruit breeding. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, pp 154–171Google Scholar
  40. Hansche P, Beres V, Forde H (1972) Estimates of quantitative genetic properties of walnut and their implications for cultivar improvement. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 97:279–285Google Scholar
  41. Hardner C (2015) Macadamia domestication in Hawai’i. Genetic Resources and Crop EvolutionGoogle Scholar
  42. Hardner C, Winks C, Stephenson R, Gallagher E (2001) Genetic parameters for nut and kernel traits in macadamia. Euphytica 117(2):151–161.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004016503740 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hardner CM, Winks CW, Stephenson RA, Gallagher EG, McConchie CA (2002) Genetic parameters for yield in macadamia. Euphytica 125(2):255–264.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015857409317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hardner C, Pisanu P, Boyton S (2004) National macadamia germplasm conservation program. Horticulture Australia,Google Scholar
  45. Hardner C, Peace C, Henshall J, Manners J (2005) Opportunities and constraints for marker-assisted selection in macadamia breeding. Acta Hortic 694:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hardner C, Greaves B, Coverdale C, Wegener M Application of economic modelling to support selection decisions in macadamia. In: Mercer C (ed) 13th Australasian Plant Breeding Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2006. pp 426–431Google Scholar
  47. Hardner CM, Peace C, Lowe AJ, Neal J, Pisanu P, Powell M, Schmidt A, Spain C, Williams K (2009) Genetic resources and domestication of Macadamia. Hortic Rev 35:1–126Google Scholar
  48. Hayes B, Goddard M (2010) Genome-wide association and genomic selection in animal breeding. Genome 53(11):876–883.  https://doi.org/10.1139/G10-076 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hayes B, Daetwyler H, Bowman P, Moser G, Tier B, Crump R, Khatkar M, Raadsma H, Goddard M (2009) Accuracy of genomic selection: comparing theory and results. Proc Assoc Advmt Anim Breed Genet 18:34–37Google Scholar
  50. He J, Zhao X, Laroche A, Z-X L, Liu H, Li Z (2014) Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS) tool to accelerate plant breeding. Front Plant Sci 5:484PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heffner EL, Sorrells ME, Jannink J-L (2009) Genomic selection for crop improvement. Crop Sci 49(1):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.08.0512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Heffner EL, Lorenz AJ, Jannink J-L, Sorrells ME (2010) Plant breeding with genomic selection: gain per unit time and cost. Crop Sci 50(5):1681–1690.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2009.11.0662 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heslot N, Yang H-P, Sorrells ME, Jannink J-L (2012) Genomic selection in plant breeding: a comparison of models. Crop Sci 52(1):146–160.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2011.06.0297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Howlett BG, Nelson WR, Pattemore DE, Gee M (2015) Pollination of macadamia: review and opportunities for improving yields. Sci Hortic 197:411–419.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Huang X, Han B (2014) Natural variations and genome-wide association studies in crop plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 65(1):531–551.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-arplant-050213-035715 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huett DO (2004) Macadamia physiology review: a canopy light response study and literature review. Aust J Agric Res 55(6):609.  https://doi.org/10.1071/AR03180 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Igarashi M, Hatsuyama Y, Harada T, Fukasawa-Akada T (2016) Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan. Breed Sci 66(1):18–33.  https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.66.18 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Isik F (2014) Genomic selection in forest tree breeding: the concept and an outlook to the future. New For 45(3):379–401.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-014-9422-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Isik F, Kumar S, Martínez-García PJ, Iwata H, Yamamoto T (2015) Acceleration of forest and fruit tree domestication by genomic selection. In: Plomion C, Adam-Blondon A-F (eds) Advances in botanical research, land plants—trees, vol 74. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 93–124Google Scholar
  60. Ito PJ (1980) Effect of style removal on fruit set in macadamia. Hortscience 15:520–521Google Scholar
  61. Iwata H (2016) Genomic selection in citrus breeding: accuracy of genomic prediction. Plant and Animal Genome XXIV ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  62. Iwata H, Hayashi T, Tsumura Y (2011) Prospects for genomic selection in conifer breeding: a simulation study of Cryptomeria japonica. Tree Genet Genomes 7(4):747–758.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-011-0371-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iwata H, Hayashi T, Terakami S, Takada N, Sawamura Y, Yamamoto T (2013) Potential assessment of genome-wide association study and genomic selection in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia. Breed Sci 63(1):125–140.  https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.63.125 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Iwata H, Minamikawa MF, Kajiya-Kanegae H, Ishimori M, Hayashi T (2016) Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees. Breed Sci 66(1):100–115.  https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.66.100 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jannink J-L, Lorenz AJ, Iwata H (2010) Genomic selection in plant breeding: from theory to practice. Brief Funct Genomics 9(2):166–177.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bfgp/elq001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kester DE, Asay R (1975) Almonds. In: Janick J, Moore JN (eds) . Advances in fruit breeding. Purdue University Press, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  67. Khan MA, Korban SS (2012) Association mapping in forest trees and fruit crops. J Exp Bot 63(11):4045–4060.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ers105 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumar S, Bink MC, Volz RK, Bus VG, Chagné D (2012a) Towards genomic selection in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) breeding programmes: prospects, challenges and strategies. Tree Genet Genomes 8(1):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-011-0425-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kumar S, Chagne D, Bink MC, Volz RK, Whitworth C, Carlisle C (2012b) Genomic selection for fruit quality traits in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) PLoS One 7(5):e36674.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036674 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kumar K, Nagi M, Singh D, Kaur R, Gupta R (2013a) Heritability estimates, correlation and path analysis studies for nut and kernel characters of Pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang] K. Koch). Afr J Agric Res 8:1915–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kumar S, Garrick DJ, Bink MC, Whitworth C, Chagné D, Volz RK (2013b) Novel genomic approaches unravel genetic architecture of complex traits in apple. BMC Genomics 14(1):393–406.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-393 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kwong QB, Ong AL, Teh CK, Chew FT, Tammi M, Mayes S, Kulaveerasingam H, Yeoh SH, Harikrishna JA, Appleton DR (2017) Genomic selection in commercial perennial crops: applicability and improvement in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Sci Rep 7(1):2872–2881.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-02602-6 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lande R, Thompson R (1990) Efficiency of marker-assisted selection in the improvement of quantitative traits. Genetics 124(3):743–756PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee SH, van der Werf JH, Hayes BJ, Goddard ME, Visscher PM (2008) Predicting unobserved phenotypes for complex traits from whole-genome SNP data. PLoS Genet 4(10):e1000231.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000231 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leverington RE (1962) Evaluation of macadamia nut varieties for processing. Qld J Agr Sci 19:33–46Google Scholar
  76. Li C (1975) Path analysis—a primer. Boxwood Press, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  77. Lin Z, Hayes BJ, Daetwyler HD (2014) Genomic selection in crops, trees and forages: a review. Crop Pasture Sci 65:1177–1191Google Scholar
  78. Luby JJ, Shaw DV (2001) Does marker-assisted selection make dollars and sense in a fruit breeding program? Hortscience 36:872–879Google Scholar
  79. Lynch M, Walsh B (1998) Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits, vol 1. Sinauer Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  80. McConchie C, Meyers N, Anderson K, Vivian-Smith A, O’Brien S, Richards S (1996) Development and maturation of macadamia nuts in Australia. In: RA Stephenson CW (ed) Proceedings of the third Australian Society of Horticultural Science and the first Australian Macadamia Society Research Conference, Gold Coast, Australia. pp 234–238Google Scholar
  81. McConchie CA, Meyers N, Vithanage V, Turnbull C (1997) Pollen parent effects on nut quality and yield in macadamiaGoogle Scholar
  82. McFadyen L, Robertson D, Sedgley M, Kristiansen P, Olesen T (2012) Time of pruning affects fruit abscission, stem carbohydrates and yield of macadamia. Funct Plant Biol 39(6):481–492.  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP11254 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mehlenbacher SA (2002) Progress and prospects in nut breeding. In: XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Genetics and Breeding of Tree Fruits and Nuts 622, pp 57–79Google Scholar
  84. Meuwissen THE, Hayes BJ, Goddard ME (2001) Prediction of total genetic value using genome-wide dense marker maps. Genetics 157(4):1819–1829PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Minamikawa MF, Nonaka K, Kaminuma E, Kajiya-Kanegae H, Onogi A, Goto S, Yoshioka T, Imai A, Hamada H, Hayashi T (2017) Genome-wide association study and genomic prediction in citrus: potential of genomics-assisted breeding for fruit quality traits. Sci Rep 7(1):4721–4734.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05100-x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moncur MW, Stephenson RA, Trochoulias T (1985) Floral development of Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche under Australian conditions. Sci Hortic 27(1-2):87–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(85)90058-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Muranty H, Jorge V, Bastien C, Lepoittevin C, Bouffier L, Sanchez L (2014) Potential for marker-assisted selection for forest tree breeding: lessons from 20 years of MAS in crops. Tree Genet Genomes 10(6):1491–1510.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-014-0790-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Myles S, Peiffer J, Brown PJ, Ersoz ES, Zhang Z, Costich DE, Buckler ES (2009) Association mapping: critical considerations shift from genotyping to experimental design. Plant Cell 21(8):2194–2202.  https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.109.068437 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nagao MA, Sakai WS (1990) Effects of gibberellic acid, ethephon or girdling on the production of racemes in Macadamia integrifolia. Sci Hortic 43(1-2):47–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(90)90035-D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Namkoong G, Lewontin RC, Yanchuk AD (2005) Plant genetic resource management: the next investments in quantitative and qualitative genetics. Genet Resour Crop Evol 51(8):853–862.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-005-0776-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. de Nettancourt D (1977) Incompatibility in angiosperms. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-12051-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nock CJ, Baten A, Barkla BJ, Furtado A, Henry RJ, King GJ (2016) Genome and transcriptome sequencing characterises the gene space of Macadamia integrifolia (Proteaceae). BMC Genomics 17(1):937.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-3272-3 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. van Nocker S, Gardiner SE (2014) Breeding better cultivars, faster: applications of new technologies for the rapid deployment of superior horticultural tree crops. Hortic Res 1:14022.  https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2014.22 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. O'Hare PTB (2010) Industry consultation helps guide macadamia breedin objectives vol 38Google Scholar
  95. O'Hare PJ, Stephenson RA, Quinlan K, Vock NT (2004) Macadamia growers handbook. Queensland GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  96. Peace C (2005) Genetic characterisation of Macadamia with DNA markers. PhD, University of QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  97. Peace CP (2017) DNA-informed breeding of rosaceous crops: promises, progress and prospects. Hortic Res 4:17006.  https://doi.org/10.1038/hortres.2017.6 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Peace C, Ming R, Schmidt A, Manners J, Vithanage V (2008) Genomics of Macadamia, a recently domesticated tree nut crop. In: Moore P, Ming R (eds) Genomics of tropical crop plants, vol 1. Plant genetics and genomics: crops and models. Springer, New York, pp 313–332.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71219-2_13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Piepho H-P (1995) A simple procedure for yield component analysis. Euphytica 84(1):43–48.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01677555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pisanu PC, Gross CL, Flood L (2009) Reproduction in wild populations of the threatened tree Macadamia tetraphylla: interpopulation pollen enriches fecundity in a declining species. Biotropica 41(3):391–398.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2008.00484.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Porter G, Sherman W, Beckman T, Krewer G (2002) Fruit weight and shoot diameter relationship in early ripening peaches. J Am Pomol Soc 56:30Google Scholar
  102. Resende MF Jr, Munoz P, Acosta JJ, Peter GF, Davis JM, Grattapaglia D, Resende MD, Kirst M (2012) Accelerating the domestication of trees using genomic selection: accuracy of prediction models across ages and environments. New Phytol 193:617–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rikkerink EH, Oraguzie NC, Gardiner SE (2007) Prospects of association mapping in perennial horticultural crops. In: Association mapping in plants. Springer, pp 249–269, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-36011-9_11
  104. Rosengarten FJ (2004) The book of edible nuts. Courier CorporationGoogle Scholar
  105. Ru S, Main D, Evans K, Peace C (2015) Current applications, challenges, and perspectives of marker-assisted seedling selection in Rosaceae tree fruit breeding. Tree Genet Genomes 11:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Samonte SOP, Wilson LT, McClung AM (1998) Path analyses of yield and yield-related traits of fifteen diverse rice genotypes. Crop Sci 38(5):1130–1136.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1998.0011183X003800050004x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Savolainen O, Pyhäjärvi T (2007) Genomic diversity in forest trees. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10(2):162–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2007.01.011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Seavey SR, Bawa KS (1986) Late-acting self-incompatibility in angiosperms. Bot Rev 52(2):195–219.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02861001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sedgley M (1981) Early development of the Macadamia ovary. Aust J Bot 29(2):185–193.  https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9810185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sedgley M, Blesing MA, Vithanage HIMV (1985) A developmental study of the structure and pollen receptivity of the macadamia pistil in relation to protandry and self-incompatibility. Bot Gaz 146(1):6–14.  https://doi.org/10.1086/337494 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sedgley M, Bell F, Bell D, Winks C, Pattison S, Hancock T (1990) Self-and cross-compatibility of macadamia cultivars. J Hortic Sci 65(2):205–213.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1990.11516048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. de Souza VA, Byrne DH, Taylor JF (1998) Heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations, and predicted selection response of quantitative traits in peach: I. An analysis of several reproductive traits. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:598–603Google Scholar
  113. Sparnaaij LD, Bos I (1993) Component analysis of complex characters in plant breeding: I. Proposed method for quantifying the relative contribution of individual components to variation of the complex character. Euphytica 70(3):225–235.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00023763 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stephens MJ, Scalzo J, Alspach PA, Beatson RA, Connor AM (2009) Genetic variation and covariation of yield and phytochemical traits in a red raspberry factorial study. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 134:445–452Google Scholar
  115. Stephenson R, Cull B, Mayer D (1986) Effects of site, climate, cultivar, flushing, and soil and leaf nutrient status on yields of macadamia in south east Queensland. Sci Hortic 30(3):227–235.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(86)90101-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stephenson RA, Gallagher EC, Rasmussen TS (1989) Effects of growth manipulation on carbohydrate reserves of macadamia trees. Sci Hortic 40(3):227–235.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(89)90115-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Thomas R, Grafius J (1976) Prediction of heterosis levels from parental information. In: Proc. Seventh Congress of Eucarpia, pp 173–180Google Scholar
  118. Thompson T, Baker J (1993) Heritability and phenotypic correlations of six pecan nut characteristics. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 118:415–418Google Scholar
  119. Topp B, Hardner C, Kelly A (2012) Strategies for breeding macadamias in Australia. Acta Hortic 935:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Topp B, Hardner CM, Neal J, Kelly A, Russell D, McConchie C, O'Hare PJ (2016) Overview of the Australian macadamia industry breeding programGoogle Scholar
  121. Trueman SJ (2013) The reproductive biology of macadamia. Sci Hortic 150:354–359.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.11.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Trueman SJ, Turnbull CGN (1994) Effects of cross-pollination and flower removal on fruit set in Macadamia. Ann Bot 73(1):23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1994.1003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Trueman S, Richards S, McConchie C, Turnbull C (2000) Relationships between kernel oil content, fruit removal force and abscission in macadamia. Anim Prod Sci 40(6):859–866.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EA00004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Urata U (1954) Pollination requirements of macadamia. Hawaii Agric Exp Station Tech Bull 22:1–40Google Scholar
  125. Varshney RK, Graner A, Sorrells ME (2005) Genomics-assisted breeding for crop improvement. Trends Plant Sci 10(12):621–630.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2005.10.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Viana AP, Resende MDV, Riaz S, Walker MA (2016) Genome selection in fruit breeding: application to table grapes. Sci Agric 73(2):142–149.  https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-9016-2014-0323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Westwood M (1993) Temperate-zone pomology: physiology and culture. Third edition edn. Timber Press, Inc., PortlandGoogle Scholar
  128. Wilkie J (2009) Interactions between the vegetative growth, flowering and yield of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × M. tetraphylla), in a canopy management context. Univ of New England, Armidale, Australia, PhD DissGoogle Scholar
  129. Wong C, Bernardo R (2008) Genomewide selection in oil palm: increasing selection gain per unit time and cost with small populations. Theor Appl Genet 116(6):815–824.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-008-0715-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Xu Y, Crouch JH (2008) Marker-assisted selection in plant breeding: from publications to practice. Crop Sci 48(2):391–407.  https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2007.04.0191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Xu Y, Lu Y, Xie C, Gao S, Wan J, Prasanna BM (2012) Whole-genome strategies for marker-assisted plant breeding. Mol Breed 29(4):833–854.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-012-9699-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yamamoto T, Terakami S (2016) Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees. Breed Sci 66(1):148–159.  https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.66.148 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Yao Q, Mehlenbacher S (2000) Heritability, variance components and correlation of morphological and phenological traits in hazelnut. Plant Breed 119(5):369–381.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0523.2000.00524.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations