Tree Genetics & Genomes

, 13:94 | Cite as

Identification of the SRO gene family in apples (Malus×domestica) with a functional characterization of MdRCD1

  • Haohao Li
  • Rui Li
  • Fengjia Qu
  • Jifang Yao
  • Yujin Hao
  • Xiaofei WangEmail author
  • Chunxiang YouEmail author
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Genome Biology


RCD1 is a member of the plant-specific SRO protein family. Several SRO genes have been functionally identified in the regulation of abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis and other plant species. However, the function of SROs is largely unknown in apple (Malus×domestica). In this study, six MdSRO-encoding genes were isolated, categorized into two types and mapped to six chromosomes. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences of the AtSRO and MdSRO proteins are highly conserved. Subsequently, expression analysis showed that MdSRO genes had different expression profiles in different tissues and in response to various stresses. Finally, MdRCD1 was isolated for functional identification. The results showed that resistance to oxidation stress in apple calli was enhanced by MdRCD1 overexpression and weakened by MdRCD1 suppression. MdRCD1 also played a crucial role in the regulation of ROS homeostasis in transgenic apple calli and Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of MdRCD1 significantly enhanced resistance to salt and oxidative stresses in transgenic lines. In addition, MdRCD1 also enhanced drought tolerance due to its influence on stomatal opening. Based on these results, we conclude that MdRCD1 is an important regulator in abiotic stress response.


Apple SRO RCD1 Abiotic stresses 



This research was supported by grants from NSFC (31430074 and 31601742), Ministry of Education of China (IRT15R42), and Shandong Province (SDAIT-06- 03).

Author contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CXY XFW HHL. Performed the experiments: HHL RL. Analyzed the data: HHL RL FJQ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YJH JFY. Wrote the paper: HHL XFW.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Data archiving statement

The apple SRO gene family sequences have been submitted to Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) (, and the accession number been shown in the Table 1. All sequences of A. thaliana SRO genes are available in the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) (

Supplementary material

11295_2017_1175_MOESM1_ESM.docx (665 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 664 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haohao Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rui Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fengjia Qu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jifang Yao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yujin Hao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xiaofei Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Chunxiang You
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Crop BiologyShandong Agricultural UniversityTai-AnChina
  2. 2.National Research Center for Apple Engineering and TechnologyShandong Agricultural UniversityTai-AnChina
  3. 3.College of Horticulture Science and EngineeringShandong Agricultural UniversityTai-AnChina

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