Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consists of numerous number of nodes fitted with energy reserves to collect large amount of data from the environment on which it is deployed. Energy conservation has huge importance in wsn since it is virtually impossible to recharge the nodes in their remote deployment. Forwarding the collected data from nodes to the base station requires considerable amount of energy. Hence efficient routing protocols should be used in forwarding the data to the base station in order to minimize the energy consumption thereby increasing the life-time of the network. In this proposed routing protocol, we consider a hierarchical routing architecture in which nodes in the outer-level forwards data to the inner-level nodes. Here we optimized the routing path using ant-colonies where data moves along minimal congested path. Further, when ant-colony optimization is used, certain cluster-head nodes may get overloaded with data forwarding resulting in early death due to lack of energy. To overcome this anomaly, we estimated the amount of data a neighboring Cluster-head can forward based on their residual energy. We compared the energy consumption results of this proposed Routing using Ant Colony Optimization (RACO) with other existing clustering protocols and found that this system conserves more energy thereby increasing lifetime of the network.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Dorigo, M., & Stutzle, T. (2004). Ant colony optimization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Yua, J., Qia, Y., Wangb, G., & Gua, X. (2012). A cluster-based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks with non-uniform node distribution. International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEÜ),66, 54–61.
Heinzelman, W. R., Chandrakasan, A., Balakrishnan, H. (2000). “Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless micro-sensor networks”, Proc. of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, (pp. 1–10).
Younis, O., & Fahmy, S. (2004). Heed: a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad hoc sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing,3, 366–379.
Liu, M., Cao, J. N., Chen, G., & Eadeeg, H. (2007). An energy-aware data gathering protocol for wireless sensor networks. Journal of Software,18, 1092–1109.
Li, L., & Wen, X. M. (2008). Energy efficient optimization of clustering algorithm in wireless sensor network. Journal of Electronics and Information Technology,30, 966–969.
Bandyopadyay, B., & Coyle, E. J. (2004). Minimizing communication costs in hierarchically clustered networks of wireless sensors. Computer Networks,44, 1–16.
Jin, Y., Wang, L., Kim, Y., & Yang, X. Z. (2008). Eemc: an energy-efficient multi-level clustering algorithm for large-scale wireless sensor networks. Computer Networks,52, 542–562.
Xuxun, Liu. (2015). A typical hierarchical routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: a review. IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(10), 5372–5383.
Poojary, M., & Renuka, B. (2011). Ant colony optimization routing to mobile ad hoc networks in urban environments. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies,2(6), 2776–2779.
Sravani, V., Naik, K. C. K., & Balaswamy, Ch. (2014). A novel routing protocol based on multipath routing for mobile adhoc networks. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 3(12), 8732–8737.
Kumar, P., Mahajan, S., et al. (2014). A novel ant colony optimization based intelligent routing algorithm. International Journal of Information and Computation Technology,4(17), 1771–1782.
Kim, N., Han, S., & Kwon, W. H. (2008). Optimizing the number of clusters in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. IEICE Transactions on Communications E91-B,1, 318–321.
Kim, J. Y., & Sharma, T. (2014). Inter-cluster ant colony optimization algorithm for wireless sensor network in dense environment. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks,10(4), 457402.
Kamali, S., & Opatrny, J. (2008). A position based ant colony routing algorithm for mobile ad-hoc networks. Journal of Networks,3(4), 31–41.
Blum, C. (2005). Ant colony optimization: introduction and recent trends. Physics of Life Reviews,2, 353–373.
Wang, J., et al. (2009). Hopnet: a hybrid ant colony optimization routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc network. Ad Hoc Networks,7, 690–705.
Zhang, Y., Kuhn, L. D., & Fromherz, M. P. J. (2004). Improvements on ant routing for sensornetworks. Ant Colony, Optimization And Swarm Intelligence, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,2004(3172), 289–313.
Wen, Y. F., Chen, Y. Q., & Pan, M. (2008). Adaptive ant-based routing in wireless sensor networks using energy* delay metrics. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A,9(4), 531–538.
GhasemAghaei, R., Rahman, M. A., Gueaieb, & W., El Saddik, A. (2007). Ant colony-based reinforcement learning algorithm for routing in wireless sensor networks. In 2007 IEEE instrumentation and measurement technology conference IMTC 2007. Warsaw.
Cai, W., Jin, X., Zhang, Y., Chen, K., & Wang, R. (2006). ACO based QoS routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks In: Ubiquitous intelligence and computing. UIC 2006, Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 4159). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Wang X., Li Q., Xiong N., & Pan Y. (2008). Ant colony optimization-based location-aware routing for wireless sensor networks. In: Wireless algorithms, systems, and applications. WASA 2008, Lecture notes in computer science (vol. 5258). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Anandh, S.J., Baburaj, E. Energy Efficient Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Ant-Colony Optimization. Wireless Pers Commun (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-020-07539-0
- Energy efficiency
- Wireless sensor network
- Ant colony
- Network lifetime