In underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), localization and time synchronization plays a critical role among many underwater applications. However without time synchronization, localization does not provides guarantee to be accurate, because these procedures are depending upon each other and in most of the application in UWSNs needs time accuracy in nodes. Protocols that have been design for wireless sensor networks cannot apply on UWSNs since these algorithms are not design for the calculation of propagation delay, high error rate and mobility of nodes. This study is going to present a comprehensive survey about the algorithm that have been designed for the localization and time synchronization in underwater sensors networks by classifying them in categories and analyze them on the basis of challenges faced by localization and time synchronization in UWSNs such as type of sensors, ranging methodology, communication mode, time interval, coverage area, energy consumption and computational complexity. This study will critically provides the analyses based on these factors and the comparison of the previously developed techniques which will help in concluding better technique for localization and time synchronization. The propose of this detail discussion is to provide a plat form for the upcoming researcher, they can proceed their research by using the information for the localization and time synchronization as this study will also discusses the open research challenges for future direction.
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Shams, R., Khan, F.H., Amir, M. et al. Critical Analysis of Localization and Time Synchronization Algorithms in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges. Wireless Pers Commun 116, 1231–1258 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-020-07233-1
- Underwater sensors networks (UWSNs)
- Time synchronization