A New Energy Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks consist of low cost sensor nodes which have limited power supplies, memory capacity, processing capability and transmission rate. Sensor nodes gather information from the environment and send the collected information to base station with help of a routing cooperation. Because of limited resources in Wireless Sensor Networks, fulfilling these routing operations is a major problem. Routing protocols are used to perform these operations. The most important thing by considering while these protocols are designed is energy efficiency. Because wireless sensor networks are widely used in intelligent systems, the energy efficiency of these networks is very important in IoT. Researchers have proposed several hierarchical routing protocols such as LEACH, PEGASIS, TEEN and APTEEN. In this study, an energy efficient routing protocol is developed which is more efficient than currently avaliable routing protocols. The developed protocol involves mapping of the network, sleep–wake/load balancing, data merge processes. The proposed protocol gives better results than other protocols in number of surviving nodes and amount of energy consumed criterias.
KeywordsWireless sensor networks Hierarchical routing protocol Energy efficiency
- 9.Yu, L., Wei, L., & Zhenhua, K. (2009). Study on energy efficient hierarchical routing protocols of wireless sensor network. In Information engineering, 2009. ICIE ‘09. WASE ınternational conference on, IEEE, Vol. 1, (pp. 325–328). https://doi.org/10.1109/icie.2009.200.
- 11.Heinzelman, W. R., Chandrakasan, A., & Balakrishnan, H. (2000). Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii ınternational conference on system sciences, IEEE.Google Scholar
- 12.Lindsey, S., & Raghavendra, C. S. (2002). “PEGASIS: Power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems. In Aerospace conference proceedings, 2002, IEEE. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/aero.2002.1035242.
- 13.Manjeshwar, A., & Agrawal, D. P. (2001). TEEN: A protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor network. In 1st IWPDC ıssues in wireless networks and mobile computing, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
- 14.Manjeshwar, A., & Agrawal, D. P. (2002). APTEEN: A hybrid protocol for efficient routing and comprehensive ınformation retrieval in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the ınternational parallel and distributed processing symposium, IEEE.Google Scholar
- 17.Barfunga, S. P., Rai, P., Kumar, H., & Sarma, D. (2012). Energy efficient cluster based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Computer and communication engineering (ICCCE), 2012 ınternational conference on, IEEE, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/iccce.2012.6271258.
- 19.Zaghal, R., Alyounis, F., & Salah, S. (2016). Performance evaluation of routing protocols in wireless sensor networks: A comparative study. In 5th ınternational conference on ınformatics and applications (ICIA) (pp. 63–70).Google Scholar
- 20.Singh, H., & Singh, D. (2016). Taxonomy of routing protocols in wireless sensor networks: A survey. In 2nd IEEE ınternational conference on contemporary computing and ınformatics (IC3I) (pp 822–830). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 21.Sabri, A., & Al-Shqeerat, K. (2014). Hierarchical cluster-based routing protocols for wireless sensor networks—a survey. IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, 11(1), 93–105.Google Scholar
- 22.Singh, S. K., Singh, M. P., & Singh, D. K. (2010). A survey of energy-efficient hierarchical cluster-based routing in wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Advanced Networking and Applications, 2(2), 570–580.Google Scholar
- 23.Handy, M. J., Haase, M., Timmermann, D. (2002). Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy with deterministic cluster-head selection. In 4th ınternational workshop on mobile and wireless communications network (pp. 368–372). IEEE.Google Scholar
- 25.Kandpal, R., Singh, R., & Mandoria, H. L. (2015). Comparative study of hierarchical routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Computer Science Engineering (IJCSE), 4(5), 29–31.Google Scholar
- 26.Waware, S., Sarwade, N., & Gangurde, P. (2012). A review of power efficient hierarchical routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), 2(2), 1096–1102.Google Scholar
- 27.Jaffri, Z. U. A., & Rauf, S. (2014). A survey on energy efficient routing techniques in wireless sensor networks focusing on hierarchical network routing protocols. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 4(2), 200–205.Google Scholar
- 29.Patel, K., Tiwari, S., & Jha, P. (2014). Energy efficient hierarchical routing protocol in wireless sensor network. International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 1(3), 103–109.Google Scholar
- 31.Botta, M., & Sımek, M. (2013). Adaptive distance estimation based on RSSI in 802.15.4 network. Radioengineering, 22(4), 1162–1168.Google Scholar
- 32.Diallo, C., Marot, M., & Becker, M. (2010). Using LQI to ımprove clusterhead locations in dense zigbee based wireless sensor networks. In 2010 IEEE 6th ınternational conference on wireless and mobile computing, networking and communications, IEEE (pp. 137–143). https://doi.org/10.1109/wimob.2010.5644979.
- 33.Benkič, K., Malajner, M., Planinšič, P., & Čučej, Ž. (2008). Using RSSI value for distance estimation in wireless sensor networks based on ZigBee. In Systems, signals and ımage processing, 2008. IWSSIP 2008. 15th ınternational conference on, IEEE (pp. 1–4). https://doi.org/10.1109/iwssip.2008.4604427.