Wireless Networks

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1755–1774 | Cite as

Traffic-aware stateless multipath routing for fault-tolerance in IEEE 802.15.4 wireless mesh networks

  • Kiwoong Kwon
  • Seong Hoon Kim
  • Minkeun Ha
  • Daeyoung Kim


Single-path routing is widely used in wireless networks due to low resource consumption. However, it is vulnerable to link failure because such a failure may adversely affect an entire path. To overcome this, multipath routing has been proposed providing fault-tolerance. In this paper, we propose a novel multipath routing protocol called traffic-aware stateless multipath routing (TSMR) based on an overlaid tree topology comprising two topologies, namely, bounded degree tree (BDT) and root-oriented directional tree (RODT). BDT is strong on reducing routing overhead, and RODT is resilient against lossy links. By synergistically overlaying them, TSMR dynamically selects the local optimal path according to the given traffic flow and the failure on the primary path. In particular, TSMR enables stateless and low overhead routing despite multipath routing by keeping only one-hop neighbors to maintain multiple paths. To evaluate TSMR, we conducted simulations with a shadowing model reflecting lossy links, and compared with single and multipath routing protocols, such as ZTR, STR, AODV, and RPL. The simulation results show that the overall performance of TSMR surpasses that of others for packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, control overhead, memory consumption, and power consumption regardless of network size, number of sessions, and traffic flow.


Multipath routing Fault-tolerance Tree routing Resource constraints IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless mesh networks 



This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. R01261610020001002, Development of agro-livestock cloud and application service for balanced production, transparent distribution and safe consumption based on GS1) and National GNSS Research Center program of Defense Acquisition Program Administration and Agency for Defense Development.

Supplementary material

11276_2016_1427_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (770 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 769 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of School of ComputingKorea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)DaejeonKorea
  2. 2.Software GroupYBrainSeongnamKorea
  3. 3.School of Technology and HealthKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

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