Wireless Networks

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1699–1714 | Cite as

Joint scheduling and routing with power control for centralized wireless sensor networks

  • Chiara Buratti
  • Roberto Verdone


We consider a TDMA-based multi-hop wireless sensor network, where nodes send data to a sink, which is aware of received powers at all receivers; the sink is responsible for creating the network topology and assigning time slots to links. Under this centralized approach, we propose two algorithms that jointly define the tree topology connecting nodes to the sink, and assign time slots, avoiding any packet loss. In contrast with previous works, the proposed algorithms accurately account for interference effects; when evaluating the signal-to-interference ratio to establish the tree and schedule transmissions, we consider the sum of all actual interfering signals, a fact of relevance for networks with increasing number of nodes. Optimal selection of transmit powers, minimizing energy consumption, is also applied. Our algorithms are compared to a benchmark solution and other proposals from the literature; it is shown that they bring to better radio resource utilization, higher throughput and lower energy consumption, while keeping the average delay limited.


Centralized wireless sensor networks Scheduling Routing Power control 



This work has been performed in the framework of COST Action CA15104 IRACON.


  1. 1.
    Agiwal, M., Roy, A., & Saxena, N. (2016). Next generation 5G wireless networks: A comprehensive survey. IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, PP(99):1–1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agiwal, M., Roy, A., & Saxena, N. (2016). Fronthauling for 5G LTE-U ultra dense cloud small cell networks. Accepted for publication on IEEE wireless communications.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sood, K., Yu, S., & Xiang, Y. (2016). Software-defined wireless networking opportunities and challenges for internet-of-things: A review. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 3(4), 453–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xu, X., Saad, W., Zhang, X., Xiao, L., & Zhou, S. (May 2016). Deployment of 5G networking infrastructure with machine type communication considerations. In 2016 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    5G PPP. (2015). White paper: 5G and the factories of the future. White paper, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shi, L., & Fapojuwo, A. O. (2010). TDMA scheduling with optimized energy efficiency and minimum delay in clustered wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 9(7), 927–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dujovne, D., Watteyne, T., Vilajosana, X., & Thubert, P. (2014). 6TiSCH: deterministic IP-enabled industrial internet (of things). IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(12), 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thubert, P., Palattella, M. R., & Engel, T. (Oct 2015). 6TiSCH centralized scheduling: When SDN meet IoT. In 2015 IEEE conference on standards for communications and networking (CSCN), pp. 42–47.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walczak, Z., & Wojciechowski, J. M. (July 2006). Transmission scheduling in packet radio networks using graph coloring algorithm. In International conference on wireless and mobile communications, 2006. ICWMC ’06, pp. 46–46.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brelaz, Daniel. (1979). New methods to color the vertices of a graph. Magazine Communications of the ACM, 22(4), 251–256.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buratti, C., & Verdone, R. (Sept 2016). Joint routing and scheduling for centralised wireless sensor networks. In 2nd Internal forum on research and technologies for society and industry, RTSI 2016.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Foschini, G. J., & Miljanic, Z. (1995). Distributed autonomous wireless channel assignment algorithm with power control. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 44(3), 420–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tian, C., Jiang, H., Wang, C., Wu, Z., Chen, J., & Liu, W. (2011). Neither shortest path nor dominating set: Aggregation scheduling by greedy growing tree in multihop wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 60(7), 3462–3472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cheng, M., Ye, Q., & Cai, L. (2013). Cross-layer schemes for reducing delay in multihop wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 12(2), 928–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang, H., Xing, H., Cheng, J., Nallanathan, A., & Leung, V. (2015). Secure resource allocation for OFDMA two-way relay wireless sensor networks without and with cooperative jamming. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, PP(99):1–1.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang, H., Jiang, C., Beaulieu, N. C., Chu, X., Wen, X., & Tao, M. (2014). Resource allocation in spectrum-sharing OFDMA femtocells with heterogeneous services. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 62(7), 2366–2377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang, H., Jiang, C., Beaulieu, N. C., Chu, X., Wang, X., & Quek, T. Q. S. (2015). Resource allocation for cognitive small cell networks: A cooperative bargaining game theoretic approach. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 14(6), 3481–3493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, H., Jiang, C., Mao, X., & Chen, H. H. (2016). Interference-limited resource optimization in cognitive femtocells with fairness and imperfect spectrum sensing. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 65(3), 1761–1771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cheng, M., & Quanmin, Ye. (Dec 2012). Transmission scheduling based on a new conflict graph model for multicast in multihop wireless networks. In Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2012 IEEE, pp. 5717–5722.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheng, M. X., Gong, X., Xu, Y., & Cai, L. (Dec 2011). Link activity scheduling for minimum end-to-end latency in multihop wireless sensor networks. In Global telecommunications conference (GLOBECOM 2011), 2011 IEEE, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huang, S. C. H., Wan, P. J., Vu, C. T., Li, Y., & Yao, F. (May 2007). Nearly constant approximation for data aggregation scheduling in wireless sensor networks. In 26th IEEE international conference on computer communications. IEEE INFOCOM 2007, pp. 366–372.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wan, P. J., Huang, S. C. H., Wang, L., Wan, Z., & Jia, X. (2009). Minimum latency aggregation scheduling in multihop wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing (MobiHoc), pp. 185–194.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joseph, V., Sharma, V., Mukherji, U., & Kashyap, M. (Oct 2009). Joint power control, scheduling and routing for multicast in multihop energy harvesting sensor networks. In 2009 International conference on ultra modern telecommunications workshops, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cao, M., Raghunathan, V., Hanly, S., Sharma, V., & Kumar, P. R. (Dec 2007). Power control and transmission scheduling for network utility maximization in wireless networks. In 2007 46th IEEE conference on decision and control, pp. 5215–5221.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin, X., & Shroff, N. B. (Dec 2004). Joint rate control and scheduling in multihop wireless networks. In 43rd IEEE conference on decision and control, 2004. CDC, Vol.  2, pp. 1484–1489.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vangala, H., Meshram, R., & Sharma, V. (April 2012). Joint routing, scheduling and power control in multihop MIMO networks with MAC and broadcast links. In 2012 IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC), pp. 2582–2587.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loo, H.-Y., Soh, S., & Chin, K. W. (Aug 2013). On improving capacity and delay in multi Tx/Rx wireless mesh networks with weighted links. In 2013 19th Asia-Pacific conference on communications (APCC), pp. 12–17.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang, L., Chin, K. W., Raad, R., & Soh, S. (June 2014). Delay aware joint routing and scheduling for multi-Tx-Rx wireless mesh networks. In 2014 IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), pp. 2773–2778.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dutta, P., Mhatre, V., Panigrahi, D., & Rastogi, R. (March 2010). Joint routing and scheduling in multi-hop wireless networks with directional antennas. In INFOCOM, 2010 proceedings IEEE, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eryilmaz, A., & Srikant, R. (2006). Joint congestion control, routing, and MAC for stability and fairness in wireless networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 24(8), 1514–1524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Su, H., & Zhang, X. (Nov 2009). Joint link scheduling and routing for directional-antenna based 60 GHz wireless mesh networks. In Global telecommunications conference, 2009. GLOBECOM 2009. IEEE, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cappanera, P., Lenzini, L., Lori, A., Stea, G., & Vaglini, G. (Aug 2013). Optimal joint routing and link scheduling for real-time traffic in TDMA wireless mesh networks. Computer Networks, 57(11), 2301–2312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li, J., Guo, X., & Guo, L. (Nov 2011). Joint routing, scheduling and channel assignment in multi-power multi-radio wireless sensor networks. In 30th IEEE international performance computing and communications conference, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Karami, E., & Glisic, S. (2011). Joint optimization of scheduling and routing in multicast wireless ad hoc networks using soft graph coloring and nonlinear cubic games. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 60(7), 3350–3360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kulkarni, G., Raghunathan, V., & Srivastava, M. (Nov 2004). Joint end-to-end scheduling, power control and rate control in multi-hop wireless networks. In Global telecommunications conference, 2004. GLOBECOM ’04. IEEE, Vol. 5, pp. 3357–3362.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zeng, Y., & Zheng, G. (March 2010). Joint power control, scheduling and real-time routing in wireless sensor networks. In 2010 2nd International conference on advanced computer control (ICACC), Vol. 3, pp. 357–361.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Luo, J., Rosenberg, C., & Girard, A. (2010). Engineering wireless mesh networks: Joint scheduling, routing, power control, and rate adaptation. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 18(5), 1387–1400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chae, Sung-Yoon, Kang, Kyungran, & Cho, Young-Jong. (2013). A scalable joint routing and scheduling scheme for large-scale wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks, Elsevier, 11(1), 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chang, Y., Liu, Q., Jia, X., Tang, X., & Zhou, K. (Dec 2012). Joint power control and scheduling for minimizing broadcast delay in wireless mesh networks. In Global communications conference (GLOBECOM), 2012 IEEE, pp. 5519–5524.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kumar, V. S., Kumar, L., & Sharma. V. (May 2015). Energy efficient low complexity joint scheduling and routing for wireless networks. In 2015 13th International symposium on modeling and optimization in mobile, ad hoc, and wireless networks (WiOpt), pp. 8–15.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kumar, S., & Sharma, V. (Feb 2015). Joint routing, scheduling and power control providing QoS for wireless multihop networks. In Twenty first national conference on communications (NCC), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Buratti, C., Stajkic, A., Gardasevic, G., Milardo, S., Abrignani, M. D., Mijovic, S., et al. (2016). Testing protocols for the internet of things on the euwin platform. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 3(1), 124–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stajkic, A., Abrignani, M. D., Buratti, C., Bettinelli, A., Vigo, D., & Verdone, R. (2016). From a real deployment to a downscaled testbed: A methodological approach. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 3(5), 647–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dijkstra, E. W. (1959). A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numerische Mathematik, 1, 269–271.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spira, P. M., & Pan, A. (1975). On finding and updating spanning trees and shortest paths. SIAM Journal of Computing, 4(3), 375–380.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chiang, Mung, Hande, Prashanth, Lan, Tian, & Tan, Chee Wei. (2008). Power control in wireless cellular networks. Foundations and Trends in Networking, 2(4), 381–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Heinzelman, W. R., Chandrakasan, A., & Balakrishnan, H. (Jan 2000). Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks. In Proceedings of the 33rd annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences, 2000, Vol. 2, p. 10.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mijovic, S., Sanguinetti, L., Buratti, C., & Debbah, M. (June 2015). Optimal design of energy-efficient cooperative wsns: How many sensors are needed? In 2015 IEEE 16th international workshop on signal processing advances in wireless communications (SPAWC), pp. 31–35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DEIUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations